У статті розроблено нові можливості поєднання лінгвістичного матеріалу з методикою викладання
іноземної мови. Також розглянуто цілі Болонського процесу на теренах української системи освіти.
Запропоновано лексичний матеріал, необхідний для розвитку успішної особистості студента, відібраний за
допомогою комплексної методики вивчення концепту “успіх”.
Ключові слова: успіх, лінгвістика, методика викладання іноземної мови, семантика, лексема/лексична
Education of the 21st century in the framework of Bologna process aims at forming a comprehensively
developed personality based on humanism and respect towards other cultures and nations. Modern development of
linguistics is closely connected with such fields of study as psychology, pedagogics, and methodology of a foreign
Foreign language teaching has been the object of study for many years. The investigations connected with
innovations in teacher development [Hulpa 2008], new methods, approaches and perspectives in foreign language
© Герцовська-Вайнагій Н.О., 2010 Розділ IХ. ПРИКЛАДНА ЛІНГВІСТИКА: НАПРЯМИ Й АСПЕКТИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ
teaching [Andrusyak 2009, Yaroslavtceva 2008], learning strategies [Oroszova 2008] in language learning, the role of
langauge and culture in multicultural communication [Kominarecova 2009] compel to define the notion of success in
modern language teaching.
The aim of the article is to suggest the usage of special lexical material in methodology of teaching English
which would stimulate the development of successful student‘s personality. To reach this aim it is necessary to fulfil the
following tasks: 1. to formulate the goals of the Bolonian process for students and teachers; 2. to define the direction of
modern Ukrainian pedagogics; 3. to give the definition of the notion ―success‖; 4. to suggest special lexical material to
be used by teachers in the process of the English language teaching. 5. to show ties between linguistic material and its
exact usage in foreign language teaching.
Modern Ukrainian higher education aims at joining the international Bologna process, the purpose of which is to
create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more
comparable and compatible throughout Europe. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna in
the Italian city of Bologna, with the signing in 1999 the Bologna declaration by Ministers of Education from 29
European countries. This was opened up to other countries signatory to the European Cultural Convention of the
Council of Europe; further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005),
London (2007) and Leuven (2009).
Before signing the Bologna declaration, the Magna Charta Universitatum had been issued at the meeting of
university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna – and thus of (Western) European
universities – in 1988.
It is a common misconception that the Bologna Process is an EU initiative. The Bologna Process currently has
46 participating countries. On 19th May 2005 Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine Stanislav Nikolayenko on
behalf of Ukraine signed the Bologna Declaration in Bergen.
The general goals of Bologna process are:
to facilitate mobility of students, graduates and higher educational staff;
to prepare students for their future careers and lives as active citizens of democratic societies, and support
their personal development;
to offer broad access to high-quality higher education, based on democratic principles and academic freedom.
It should be noticed that Bologna process does not foresee the identical educational systems in all the countries;
it is only aimed at strengthening the ties and improving mutual cooperation among various educational systems.
Mainly for Ukraine the implementing of Bologna reforms means that Universities grant lower Bachelor’s degree
(about 4 years) and higher Master’s degree (about 6 years). Higher educational establishments should also pass to
European Credit-Transfer System (ECTS), aiming at providing general intergovernmental procedure of estimating and
comparing the students‘ results of study in different educational establishments. ECTS is based on the principle of
various aspects of student‘s work estimation necessary for reaching the goals of curriculum. The job of the day-time
department student is to attend the lectures, seminars, individual lessons, participation in projects, passing credits and
Modern pedagogics touches upon the notion of success in two directions: the first is connected with the
technology of successful teaching of children; the second is oriented towards programming of life success of adults.
From the viewpoint of age psychology person‘s success much depends on positive upbringing; it means that reaching
this aim in the mature age is subordinated to aiming at success from childhood, i.e. children who were raised in
―successful‖ conditions, brought up by successful parents, define their aims and beliefs in its realization from their
childhood have more chances to achieve success in future than those who lack any of the factors listed above. In
pedagogics there exists a thought that only a successful teacher is able to teach a successful personality.
Thus, modern pedagogics is directs its attention at educating the successful teacher who is able to create proper
conditions to educate successful students. The main keys to be a successful teacher are as follows: sense of humour,
positive attitude, high expectations, consistency, fairness, flexibility; all these traits may help the mutual successful
grows of teacher and students.
To understand the notion of a ―successful student‖ we need to define it. Winston Churchill has once said that
―Success is going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm‖.
All modern educational innovations are aimed at forming a successful personality, who is able to succeed in his
or her future life. That is the general goal of implementation of Bolonian process in the framework of modern Ukrainian
higher education. The growing role of the individual student‘s work, competition among the members of the
educational process, motivation for reaching the highest level of specialists‘ training, the acknowledgement of
Ukrainian diplomas abroad – all these factors might raise modern Ukrainian higher education to a new quality level.
Due to the new standards, the successfulness of the students is evaluated by grades: A (excellent), B (very good), C
(good), D (quite satisfactory), E (satisfactory), FX (unsatisfactory, with a chance to pass the credit again), F
(unsatisfactory, without being able to pass the credit again).
However, Bolonian system foresees teachers‘ independence in modeling the educational process, which requires
constant self-control, searching for new approaches, scientific innovations, etc. We suggest special language material to
be used by teachers while communicating with students during lessons, which has been collected on the basis of
complex methodology. The words denoting the concept of success have been taken from Oxford English Dictionary in ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 21
12 volumes [Oxford English Dictionary 1963]. The essence of this methodology lies in formulized presentation of the
words‘ semantics which makes the study of the correlation between words and their meanings possible. This
methodology has been elaborated by Professor M. Fabian in her study of etiquette in Ukrainian, English and Hungarian
[Fabian 1998: 19].
Success in English denotes the achievement of the something desired. Better financial, social, private level is the
result of this achievement. For the most people success presupposes hard work, effort and training, while luck comes
with less or even without any endeavour. Success is as well a matter of time. It does not come immediately, time is an
important component of which. Temporal nature of success is as well displayed in its fleeting character: a person may
feel a success while reaching the goal, having attained it, the feeling may disappear. To be a success means to be
independent financially, socially, professionally and privately. The social aspect of success may be closer to women
who dare to win it strikingly.
Except the notion of luck, it is closely connected with favour, grace, recognition, victory; the listed units show
the winning semantics of the concept under study. Lexemes lot, turn, case add the meaning of fortune. Development,
perfection, promotion unite success with progress. Lexical units feat, deed, challenge add the colouring of contest.
Words happiness, felicity, delight prove the emotional nature of success, while lexemes education, training, maturity –
Students are to be encouraged to achieve success with the example of the people around, mainly their parents,
teachers, outstanding people. In the teaching of English the main essence of success lies in the possibility of free
communication, understanding of conversational phrases, fluent usage of them. We suggest certain practical tasks to be
done at English lessons. In the following task the students are asked to choose the best suitable variant from the
If you are having an argy-bargy, you‘re involved in:
a. An argument; c. a scrumble for limited supply of goods.
b. A war; d. a rush for the exit;
If you catch your death, you:
a. Catch a cold; c. learn you fate;
b. Grad something dangerous; d. cheat death;
Which of this refers to a small brown mark on a skin:
a. Heart spot; c. liver spot;
b. Kidney spot; d. brain spot;
If you do something will-nilly, you do it:
a. Carefully; c. wrongly;
b. Quickly; d. superbly;
A nitwit is a:
a. Bird; c. fool;
b. Fish; d. large sandwich;
A pig in a poke is:
a. Something smelly; c. something huge;
b. Something ugly; d. something bought unseen;
A loose dress designed to be worn by women in bed is:
a. Nightie; c. nightlife;
b. Nightwear; d.nightmare
If you are in a doghouse, you are:
a. Resting; c. getting ready to fight;
b. Arguing; d. in disgrace.
Someone which is very enthusiastic is said to be keen as:
a. A knife; c. mustard;
b. A whistle; d. ketchup.
Someone who is a wet is:
a. Feeble; c. strong swimmer;
b. Always frighten d. drunk;
The most publicized product in a company‘s range is its:
a. Flagship; c. object of worship;
b. Warship; d. ship‘s flag.
If someone is wishy-washy, it‘s:
a. Clean; c. dirty;
b. Bland; d. overused.
To have a pressing business:
a. To have something urgent to be done;
b. To be under somebody‘s pressure; Розділ IХ. ПРИКЛАДНА ЛІНГВІСТИКА: НАПРЯМИ Й АСПЕКТИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ
a. The day to pay your depts.;
b. The day of the salary;
To live in easy circumstances:
a. To have a nice accommodation;
b. To have enough money for good living;
To live beyond one‘s minds:
a. Not to think about tomorrow;
b. To earn less than you spend;
a. Tasty food;
b. Big boss;
To be on the rocks:
a. Used about the ship near the shore;
b. To have no money;
To go through mills:
a. To be experienced;
b. To pass a distant route;
To give someone hell:
a. To make someone‘s life hard;
b. To say something bad of someone;
To make both ends meet:
a. To find a relative;
b. To have a poor existence;
a. Easy money;
b. Bad luck;
To butter up:
a. To flatter;
b. To cook;
a. When intelligent people of the country find better life abroad;
b. A brain disease;
―Nil desperandum‖ means:
a. No score;
b. No parking;
c. Never despair;
You put your shoulder to the wheel to:
a. Slow something down;
b. Speed something up;
c. Increase effort;
Someone very enthusiastic is said to be keen as:
c. A knife;
Someone who is a wet is:
a. A strong swimmer;
Elbow grease is:
a. Hard work;
b. Easy work;
c. Slippery behavior;
If someone wants to give you a backhander, you would get a:
c. Piece of gossip;
A fat chance is:
a. A frequent event;
b. A very low possibility; ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 21
c. A very high possibility;
The ins and outs are:
a. The exits;
b. The ideas;
c. All the details;
If in the USA you get a gig it means that you‘ve got:
a. A new job;
b. A meal;
c. A nasty disease;
If you needle someone you:
a. Amuse them;
b. Irritates them;
c. Anger them;
Someone who is out of sorts is:
c. Slightly unwell;
Someone with excellent eye-sight is said to have eyes like a:
It a car in USA is a lemon, it is:
a. A yellow taxi;
c. A gaz-guzzler;
Something which is dodgy is:
b. Difficult to use;
An item going for a song is:
a. Very cheap;
b. Very expensive;
c. Very nice;
A smash-and-grab is:
a. An abstract painting;
b. A meal of potatoes;
c. A robbery;
Something which is the cat‘s pyjamas is:
a. The very best;
b. The very worst;
If you are inebriated, you are said to be drunk as a:
c. Skunk [Vozna 2006].
The tests listed above help to improve the knowledge of conversational English of students, develop their interest
towards the study of everyday English phrases and understand the native speech of Englishmen and Americans.
For a successful development of student‘s personality, the teacher of English should use the vocabulary,
containing the words: success, intention, regard, reach, winning, will, feat, improvement, honour, challenge,
absolutness, try, victory, hope, fame, diligence, courage, stimulus, optimism, emulation, conquest, struggle, effort,
competition, achievement, well-being, prosperity, luck, affluence. The usage of tests containing everyday vocabulary
allows students to better understand language and culture of the native speakers of English.
So, to achieve success as a result of implementation of Bolonian system the teacher of English should develop
students‘ abilities and talents, recognize their acknowledgements, define the goals, develop students‘ sense of dignity,
improve their knowledge, respect their intentions and support them on their way to the top.
Thus, the investigation of linguistic data in the context of methodology of language teaching is considered to be
perspective as it gives new possibilities to the development of students‘ and teachers‘ personality. Success as an
inseparable part of everyday life penetrates into all spheres of life and it makes its study even more important.
Розділ IХ. ПРИКЛАДНА ЛІНГВІСТИКА: НАПРЯМИ Й АСПЕКТИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ
Hulpa 2008: Hulpa, L. Fostering and Innovating Teacher Development: Practice, Reflection, Sharing [Text] /
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С. 659-664. – Бібіліогр.: с. 664.
Kominarecova 2009: Kominarecova, E. Role of Language and Culture in Multicultural communication [Text] /
E. Kominarecova // Сучасні дослідження з іноземної філології. Збірник наукових праць. –Вип. 7. – Ужгород,
2009. – С. 567-571. – Бібіліогр.: с. 571.
Oroszova 2008: Oroszova, K. Learning Strategies in Language Learning [Text] / K. Oroszova // Сучасні
дослідження з іноземної філології. Збірник наукових праць. – Вип. 6. – Ужгород, 2008. – С. 704-707. –
Бібіліогр.: с. 707.
Oxford English Dictionary 1963: Oxford English Dictionary [Text]. – Oxford University Press, London, 1963.
Андрусяк 2009: Андрусяк, І.В. Сучасна освіта: нові підходи і перспективи розвитку [Текст] /
І.В. Андрусяк // Сучасні дослідження з іноземної філології. Збірник наукових праць. – Вип. 7. – Ужгород, 2009.
– С. 541-548. – Бібіліогр.: с. 548.
Возна, Гапонів, Васильченко, Хоменко 2006: Возна, М.О., Гапонів, А.Б., Васильченко, О.Ю.,
Хоменко, Н.С. Англійська мова для перекладачів та філологів. ІІ курс [Текст] / В.І. Карабан (ред.) – Вінниця:
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В статье разработаны новые возможности совмещения лингвистического материала с методикой
преподавания иностранного языка. Также рассматриваются цели Болонского процесса в украинской системе
образования. Предлагается лексический материал, необходимый для развития успешной личности студента,
отобранный с помощью комплексной методики исследования концепта “успех”.
Ключевые слова: успех, языкознание, методика преподавания иностранного языка, семантика,
New possibilities for using linguistic data in the context of methodology of language teaching have been
elaborated in the article. The goals of the Bolonian process in the framework of Ukrainian educational system have
been defined. The lexical material necessary to develop a successful student‟s personality has been suggested based on
the complex methodology of the concept “success” study.
Keywords: success, linguistics, methodology of foreign language teaching, semantics, lexeme/lexical unit.
Надійшла до редакції 21 січня 2010 року.