Лінгвістичні студії: Збірник наукових праць.


Yuriy Polyezhayev
Department of Foreign Languges of Professional Direction, Zaporizhzhya National Technical University,
Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine

Available 11 November 2011

The relevance of the study is determined by general direction of contemporary prahmalinguistic intelligences to
create the methodological frameworks for linguocultural research of pragmatic types of texts of institutional discourses
and the need to organize text typological diversification of political discourse.
The purpose of the work is the determination on the basis of criteria of text typology of political discourse of
program statement as a specific pragmatext which is influenced by a range of extralinguistic factors, primarily social.
The implementation of the purpose provided the solution of such tasks: to study the pre-election policy statement
of the presidential candidates as a separate type of text political discourse; to identify invariant and variable text-
typological features; to set of integral and differential characteristics; to proof depending pragmatic potential of type
text on the functioning of the vocabulary of national-cultural component.
The object of the work is pre-election statement of presidential candidates.
The subject of the paper is integrated (universal) / differential (national-specific) structural-semantic and
functional features of program statement as a type of text to ensure the effectiveness of political communication,
information and persuasion.
Practical value
Linguistic identity as the bearer of the national language picture of the world is considered in the work mainly
with regard to text-typological expectations recipient text (audience-voters), which will build a policy statement in
accordance with the national language picture of the world audience and its cultural values and stereotypes.
The study of political communication by using heuristics of different research areas (cognitive, semantic,
linguocultural, stylistic, communicative, sociolinguistic, etc.) is extremely promising area of research. The intensity of ABSTRACTS

political life leads to the continuous development of vocabulary, phraseology and other systems of the national
language, to find more and more new tools, tactics and techniques of pragmatic influence on the mass audience.
In future research is the conduction of linguocultural analysis of political program statement of Ukrainian,
Russian and American politicians – presidential candidates and the execution of comparative linguostylistic analysis of
functioning units with the national-cultural component, which would reveal their universal (integrated) and cultural-
conditioned (differential) signs in compared linguocultural traditions.

Research highlights
► The article presents a comprehensive study of political program statement as a type of a text for revealing the
typological structural and functional characteristics of political program statement, eventually presenting the model of
analysis for pragmatic texts. ► Variations in arrangement of informative sets as well as the distribution of culture
bearing elements in structural and semantic aspect reflect functional, linguistic and cultural specifics of political
program statement.
Keywords: political linguistics, political discourse, type of a text, communicative situation, program statement.

Baranov, A. N., & Kazakevich, E. G. (1991). Parlamentskie debaty: tradicii i novacii: sovetskij politicheskij
jazyk (ot rituala k metafore). M.: Znanie. (Novoe v zhizni, nauke, tehnike: ser. “Nauka ubezhdat’ ritorika”; № 10).
Kuncevich, S. E. (2005). Psihologicheskie aspekty politicheskogo diskursa. Vestnik Minskogo gos. lingvist. un-
ta. Ser. 1, Filologija, 4 (20), 37-50.
Kurachek, O. F. (2003). Logicheskie i jekstralogicheskie sredstva ubezhdenija na materiale anglijskogo jazyka,
2, 182-186. Kommunikativnye strategii: materialy dokladov Mezhdunar. nauch. konf., Minsk, 28-29 maja 2003 g. (v
2 ch.). Minsk.
Selivanova, O. O. (2008). Suchasna linhvistyka: napryamy ta problemy. Poltava: Dovkillya. K.
Tkachenko, O. V. (2010). Politychna prohramna zayava yak typ tekstu: kros-kul’turnyy aspekt (na materiali
amerykans’koyi ta brytans’koyi linhvokul’turnykh tradytsiy). Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Kherson.
Chudinov, A. P. (2003). Metaforicheskaja mozaika v sovremennoj politicheskoj kommunikacii. Ekaterinburg.
Shejgal, E. I. Semiotika politicheskogo diskursa. Dissertacija doktora filologicheskih nauk: 10.02.01. Volgograd.
Jensen, J. V. (1981). Argumentation: Reasoning in Communication. New York: Van Nostrand.

Correspondence: brikrio@rambler.ru
Yuriy G. Polyezhayev, Senior Lecturer at Department of Foreign Languages of Professional Direction in
Zaporizhzhya National Technical University. His research areas include comparative linguistics and theory of

Oksana Putilina
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 18 November 2011

Under the global integration that results in strengthening intercultural relations, development of languages,
including English and Ukrainian, is a rapid process, in particular on the lexical level, which is not always predictable.
Analysis of examples adjusted by many authors, particularly A. Paunder, L. Bauer, R. Lieber et al., who are concerned
about this fact, revealed new structural types of lexical items, such as fragmented elements (splinters), a significant
number of highly unstable compound nouns with a separate writing, but common unifying accent (block compounds)
and a creation on their basis of compound words / pseudo-compound words (other parts of speech), whose self-
morphological identity usually defined only within a specific context for the fulfillment of their syntactic role, that is,
their appearance has a strengthening influence of analogy in the formation of composites / quasi-composites that can
lead to structural changes of lexical units, including the conversion of compound words in derivatives for potentially
unlimited number of new words with unstable and unpredictable grammatically-categorical indicators.
This process is one of the differential features of present-day English, especially British (BE) and American
(AmE) variants as competitors that stand out against other variants of English (such as the Australian or Canadian ones) ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

with multiplicity of media, geographical area due to extralinguistic factors of their spread – as the classic, ‘original’,
‘true’ English (as claimed by some supporters of BE) in the status of one of the languages of international
communication and as less conservative language with signs of language-cosmopolitan, that absorbed into itself the
elements of other languages, which directly contacted, and in the role of the language of the powerful state in the world
(AmE), respectively. Lack of substantial research in this area makes the relevance of proposed research.
A comprehensive analysis of innovative processes that currently take place in the English language (as opposed
to Ukrainian), primarily on the lexical level, not be possible without the differentiation of specific and borrowed items,
events, processes, etc. in modern English in comparison with the Ukrainian that is the purpose of the study.
This article uses comparative and typological methods.
The main tasks of the study are a characterization of lexical processes in present-day English (in comparison
with Ukrainian) and their historical interpreting, an establishing of the nature and causes of historical changes in the
vocabulary of English (compared with the Ukrainian), a separation of literary / colloquial functioning form of English
(in comparison with Ukrainian), a classifying types of neologisms in both languages.
Thus, the modern English language, unlike the Ukrainian, is a combination of Germanic and Roman elements is
due to historical factors and explains the international character of its vocabulary. Thanks to cultural contact with Rome
and the influence of Christianity in the English vocabulary has formed a large group of Latin-Greek words, the number
continues to grow (in the Ukrainian language prevalent in this lexical-semantic field of Greek, not Latin borrowing). At
the present time in the Ukrainian language such lexemes come mainly through English as a result of sociocultural and
psychological factors with loss the origin from classical languages or as partial equivalents. In general, the vocabulary
of both languages continue to be updated by borrowings and secondary designation, and the degree of adaptation as the
degree of novelty may be different, and lexeme is fixed in a language only in the presence of confounding factors of
approbation repeatedly in the media included.
Perspective of this study is to analyze the processes that deepen the internal stratification of modern English and
Ukrainian vocabularies as a whole system within each of the languages the whole and its individual variants in English
(AL) (British, American, Australian, etc.), the latter more deeper trends in the breeding options for English as a
relatively independent entities and strengthening of the sociolinguistic factors that determine the formation of
vocabulary as well as language forms exist mainly in the Ukrainian language (UL) (literary and spoken forms (UL) and
literary / common, colloquial (AL)) taking into account the relationships between regional, social and situational
parameters that lead to the selection of specific lexical items by carriers of both compared languages based on
communicative situation.

Research highlights
► The paper denoted to a characterization of lexical processes in present-day English (in comparison with
Ukrainian). ► The nature and causes of historical changes in the vocabulary of English (compared with the Ukrainian)
are established. ► Literary / colloquial functioning form of English (in comparison with Ukrainian) are separated.
► Types of neologisms in both languages are classified.
Keywords: «hard word», neo-classical compound, malapropism, tracing, secondary designation, proper
neologism, rename, transnomination, reconsideration, phonetic neologism, onomatopoeia.

Dubenets, Je. M. (2003). Lingvisticheskie izmenenija v sovremennom anglijskom jazyke. Moskva: Glossa-Press.
Jelisejeva, V. V. (2003). Leksikologija anglijskogo jazyka. Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo SPbGU.
Klymenko, N. F., Karpilovs’ka, Ye. A., & Kyslyuk, L. P. (2008). Dynamichni protsesy v suchasnomu
ukrayins’komu leksykoni. Kyyiv: Vydavnychyy Dim Dmytra Buraho.
Bauer, L. (2001). Morphological productivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Benczes, R. (2006). Creative compounding in English: the semantics of metaphorical and metonymical noun-
noun combinations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Carter, R. (1998). Vocabulary: applied linguistic perspectives. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, H., & Amvela, E. Zй. (2000). Words, meaning and vocabulary: an introduction to modern English
lexicology. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Leisi, E., & Watts, R. J. (1984). Modes of interpretation: essays presented to Ernst Leisi on the occasion of his
65th birthday. Tьbinger: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Lieber, R. (2004). Morphology and lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lipka, L. (2002). English lexicology: lexical structure, word semantics & word-formation. Tьbinger: Gunter
Narr Verlag. ABSTRACTS

McEnery, T., & Xiao, R., & Tono, Y. Corpus-based language studies: an advanced resource book. New York:
Taylor & Francis.
Pounder, A. (2000). Processes and paradigms in word-formation morphology. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Plag, I. (2003). Word-formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stockwell, R. P., & Minkova, D. (2001). English words: history and structure. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Štekauer, P. (2005). Meaning predictability in word formation: novel, context-free naming units. Amsterdam:
John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Correspondence: o.l.putilina@gmail.com
Oksana L. Putilina, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Ukrainian Language and
Applied Linguistics in Donetsk National University. Her research areas include comparative-historical and typological
linguistics, case grammar, cognitive linguistics, universal linguistics, generative grammar.

Natalija Pyrlik
Department of Germanic Philology, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 24 November 2011

The article focuses on A. Merkel‟s speech in the Knesset, the Israeli Parliament, on the occasion of the 60th
anniversary of the foundation of Israel. The given speech of German chancellor, Angela Merkel, is regarded as a
significant phenomenon in political communication from the viewpoint of its form, content, and the place of its
presentation and the language of performance. The A. Merkel‟s speech is one of the political public addresses, which
get the features of the considerable phenomenon in the political communication because of some reasons and
circumstances, which explains the relevance of the study [Blakar 1987; Bogdanov 1990; Tannen 1987].
The purpose of the article is to make the linguistic analysis of the A. Merkel‟s Speech on March 18, 2008.
The task is to definite and to characterize the main features of the A. Merkel‟s speech on March 18, 2008.
It was found out that: 1) chancellor actively uses the pronoun wir, which gives her an opportunity to represent
the chancellor of the FRG as one of the most influential figure in her own country, in the European Union and the whole
world, which form the modern policy; 2) A. Merkel uses the personal pronoun ich and possessive pronoun mein in order
to cut down the distance between herself and the audience, to create the atmosphere of the mutual confidence.
A further study of linguistic features of speech of chancellors of Federal Republic of Germany, in particular
A. Merkel, within European political discourse is meant to be perspective.

Research highlights
► The lingual means of expressing “the past” and “the future” in the relations between the countries from a
historical perspective have been described. ► The ways of representing the addresser proper have also been analyzed.
Keywords: linguistic analysis, political communication, lingual means, set phrases, addresser.

Blakar, R. M. (1987). Jazyk kak instrument social’noj vlasti. Jazyk i modelirovanie social’nogo vzaimodejstvija,
88-120. M.: Progress.
Bogdanov, V. V. (1990). Kommunikativnaja kompetencija i kommunikativnoe liderstvo. Jazyk, diskurs i
lichnost’, 26-31. Tver’: Izd-vo Tver. un-ta.
Budaev, Je. V., & Anikin, E. E., & Chashhina, S. S. (2008). Ritoricheskaja kritika v amerikanskoj politicheskoj
lingvistike. Politicheskaja lingvistika, 2(25). E-portal: http://journals.uspu.ru/ling5%2825%292008.
Gadzhiev, K. S. (1997). Vvedenie v politicheskuju nauku. M.: Logos.
Kanetti, Je. (1999). Jelementy vlasti. Psihologija i psihoanaliz vlasti, 120-168. Samara: Izd. Dom “Bahrah”.
Petlyuchenko, N. V. (2009). Kharyzmatyka: movna osobystist’ i dyskurs. Odesa: Astroprynt. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Stelcner, G. (2008). Obrashhenie F.D. Ruzvel’ta k kongressu 8 dekabrja 1941 g.: lingvisticheskij analiz.
Politicheskaja lingvistika, 2(25). E-portal: http://journals.uspu.ru/ling5%2825%292008.
Chudinov, A. P. (2003). Politicheskaja lingvistika (obshhie problemy, metafora). Ekaterinburg.
Shejgal, E. I., & Chervatjuk, I. S. (2005). Vlast’ i rechevaja kommunikacija. Izvestija RAN. Serija literatury i
jazyka, 64 (5), 38-45. M.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1978). Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. Questions and
Politeness, 56-289.
Tannen, D. (1987). Remarks on Discourse and Power. Power through Discourse, 3-10. Norwood, N. J: Ablex
Publishing Corporation.

Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel vor der Knesset (auch englisch und hebrдisch): Di, 18.03.2008. E-
portal: http://www.bundeskanzlerin.de/Content/DE/Rede/2008/03/2008-03-18-rede-merkel.

Correspondence: n.pyrlik@donnu.edu.ua
Natalija V. Pyrlik, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Germanic Philology in Donetsk
National University. Her research areas include theory of discourse, linguistic pragmatics, communicative linguistics,
and political linguistics.

Inna Sakharuk
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 21 November 2011

Precedent is the complex and multidimensional concept equally concerned both to linguistic and culture studies.
The relevance of this article is in the considerable interest to the phenomena that are between language and culture.
The problem of the precedent phenomena was more than once studied in the works of foreign and our
researches: R.S. Chornovol-Tkachenko, O.V. Naydyuk, Y.A. Melnyk, S.B. Serebrova, O.S. Boyarskyh,
O.A. Nahimova, D.B. Gudkov, S.L. Kushneruk, O.P. Semenets and others, but there was no researches notice to the
problem of the precedent phenomena sources in the texts of the Ukrainian printed media. Investigation of this issue will
represent the impartial information about the mentality of the Ukrainian linguistic-cultural community members, their
core values and problems and, as a conclusion, about the mechanisms of influence on the consciousness of the people,
because it is the main goal of the media discourse.
The purpose of the investigation is the precedent phenomena classification by sources.
To achieve the goal of investigation author has to solve following tasks: 1) definition of the precedent
phenomenon concept and singling out its basic features; 2) analysis of the precedent phenomena in the texts of
Ukrainian printed media; 3) analysis of the precedent phenomena sources.
During the analysis there were revealed the following groups of the precedent phenomena sources: 1) social
sphere (politics, criminal, significant social events, public figures and associations, social rewards); 2) science and art
(science, literature, folklore, mythology, pop art, cinema); 3) religion (all the existing religions and beliefs).
The most frequency phenomena were precedent phenomena with the “Politics” and “Literature” sources. The
received results can be explained by the considerable interest of our society in the political events in the country and the
world, and by that fact that literary images are the most emotional and bright for the middle age people (studied editions
are intended exactly on such audience).
According to the ethnic features the precedent phenomena are divided into the self-Ukrainian and the foreign.
There were separately distinguished the Soviet precedent phenomena that are often used in periodicals. It can be
explained by that fact that significant part of studied editions readers was born in the Soviet Union and Soviet realities
are familiar and relevant to them.
The perspective of the work is investigation of the features of the precedent phenomena transformations and
ways of its functioning in the texts of Ukrainian printed media.

Research highlights
► There was investigated the precedent phenomena functioning in the texts of Ukrainian printed media.
► There were determined the main precedent phenomena sources. ► There were identified the precedent phenomena
sources by the ethnic feature.
Keywords: precedent phenomenon, source, logoepisteme.

Dyadechko, L. P. (2003). Krylati slova v rosiys’kiy movi: systemno-funktsional’nyy ta leksykohrafichnyy
aspekty. Avtoref. dys… d-ra filol. nauk: 10.02.02. Kyyiv.
Zaharenko, I. V., & Krasnyh, V. V., & Gudkov, D. B., & Bagaeva, D. V. (1997). Pretsedentnoe vyskazyvanie i
pretsedentnoe imja kak simvoly pretsedentnyh fenomenov. Jazyk, soznanie, kommunikacija, 1, 82-103.
Karaulov, Ju. N. (2010). Russkij jazyk i jazykovaja lichnost’. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo LKI.
Kostomarov, V. G., & Burvikova, N. D. (1994). Kak teksty stanovjatsja precedentnymi. Russkij jazyk za
rubezhom, 1, 73-76.
Kostomarov, V. G., & Burvikova, N. D. (2001). Starye mehi i molodoe vino. Iz nabljudenij nad russkim
slovoupotrebleniem konca XX veka. Krasnodar: Zlatoust.
Krasnyh, V. V. (2002). Etnopsiholingvistika i lingvokul’turologija. Moskva: ITDGK “Gnozis”.
Mel’nyk, Yu. A. (2011). Pretsedentni vyslovlennya pisennoho pokhodzhennya u suchasnomu rosiys’komovnomu
publitsystychnomu dyskursi. Avtoref. dys… kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.02. Simferopol’.
Sakharuk, I. (2011). Typolohiya pretsedentnykh fenomeniv u suchasnomu ukrayins’komu dyskursi.
Linhvistychni studiyi, 23, 197-203.

Correspondence: inna2828@gmail.com
Inna V. Sakharuk, Bachelor of Philology (Applied Linguistics), student of Donetsk National University. Her
research areas include linguistic and cultural studies, precedent in particular, Ukrainian media discourse.

Antonina Samkovska
Department of Germanic and Finnish Philology, Kyiv National Linguistic University, Kyiv, Ukraine

Available 11 November 2011

It is known that the primary role in the transmission of basic information content of the message is lexical and
grammatical means.
However, only prosodic and nonverbal means of expression can complement the lack of speech. Especially
effective is the solution of many controversial issues, if prosody is not seen as an isolated phenomenon, but as an equal
language means that participates in the formation and transmission of semantic expression of the parties.
Detailed analysis of prosodic markers confident speech is extremely important and of great interest to specialists
in political rhetoric, because the speaker’s confidence is the key to a successful political speech.
The purpose of the paper is in distilling and organizing public confidence prosodic features of English speech.
Purpose requires the following tasks: 1) to determine the place and role of prosody in the transfer of semantic
potential confident expression, 2) to substantiate the importance of confident speech in political communication, and
3) to organize prosodic features that are characteristic for confident public speaking.
The object of research is the process of expression of confidence in English discourse.
Subject of study is the nomination of prosodic speech to indicate confidence in English political discourse.
Considered and analyzed basic theoretical positions and results of experimental works on describing the
dichotomy of “certainty / uncertainty” in the modern English-speaking political discourse confirm the need for a more
thorough experimental investigation of the specifics of their intonational organization and feasibility study of the
theoretical prerequisites of the scale estimates of the level of confidence of specific political speeches that author
studies. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

An overview of the problem of prosodic confident statements confirming the fact that linguistic science has
accumulated enough knowledge, which author launched in the volume of work allows, according to its purpose, to
make the transition to a comprehensive study of prosodic speech characteristics confident of American politicians.

Research highlights
► The article focuses on the outline and description of prosodic characteristics of public political speech that is
qualified as confident. ► The definition of the notion “prosody” is provided. ► Its close connection with other
language levels in the transfer of confident speech is underlined. ► Key prosody functions are described. ► A set of
relevant prosodic components that characterize confident public speech is defined.
Keywords: prosody, public speech, subjective modality category, emphatic characteristic, syntagm.

Aleksiyevyets’, O. M. (2002). Prosodychni zasoby intensyfikatsiyi vyslovlen’ suchasnoho anhliys’koho
movlennya. Ternopil’: Ekonomichna dumka.
Antipova, E. Ja. (1985). Posobie po angl. intonacii. Moskva: Prosveshhenie.
Brovchenko, T. O. (2006). Fonetyka anhliys’koyi movy (kontrastyvnyy analiz anhliys’koyi ta ukrayins’koyi
vymovy). Mykolayiv: Vydavnytstvo MDHU im. Petra Mohyly.
Zinder, L. R. (1979). Obshhaja fonetika. Moskva: Vysshaja shkola.
Zlatoustova, L. V. (1997). Obshhaja i prikladnaja fonetika. Moskva: Izd-vo MGU.
Kalyta, A. A. (2001). Fonetychni zasoby aktualizatsiyi smyslu anhliys’koho emotsiynoho vyslovlyuvannya.
Kyyiv: Vydavnychyy tsentr KDLU.
Kovalev, Ju. V. (2008). Pragmaticheskaja funkcija intonacii v publichnoj politicheskoj rechi. Dis. … doktora
filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Moskva.
Koposov, Ja. V. (2004). Lingvisticheskie korreljaty jemocional’nogo sostojanija “strah” v russkoj i anglijskoj
rechi: formirovanie bazy dannyh. Dis. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.21. Moskva.
Korlyhanova, E. L. (2000). Vzaimodejstvie prosodicheskih i kinesicheskih sredstv v vyrazhenii jemocional’nyh
znachenij radosti, gneva, udivlenija v scenicheskoj rechi (na materiale anglijskogo jazyka). Dis. … kand. filol. nauk:
10.02.04. Moskva.
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Krasil’nikova, E. M. (2005). Prosodicheskaja realizacija funkcii vozdejstvija v tekstah informacionnogo i
oratorskogo stilej. Dis. … kand.filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Volgograd.
Krasovs’ka, I. V. (2009). Linhvokohnityvni osoblyvosti prosodychnoho oformlennya anhliys’kykh vyslovlen’ na
poznachennya pozytyvnykh emotsiy (eksperymental’no-fonetychne doslidzhennya). Dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04.
Poplavskaja, T. V. (1995). Rechevoj ritm v sinhronii i diahronii. Minsk: MGLU.
Potapova, R. K. (1998). Konnotativnaja paralingvistika. Moskva: Triada.
Rudenko, O. V. (2010). Prosodychni zasoby vyrazhennya sub”yektyvnoyi modal’nosti v amerykans’komu ta
ukrayins’komu teleinterv‟yu. Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk: spets. 10.02.17 “Porivnyal’no-istorychne i typolohichne
movoznavstvo”. Kyyiv.
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Jovanovich, Inc.
Pon-Barry, H. (2009). Identifying uncertain words within an utterance via prosodic features. Proceedings of
Interspeech, 1579-1582.
Pon-Barry, H. (2008). Prosodic manifestations of confidence and uncertainty in spoken language. Proceedings of
Interspeech, 74-77.
Pon-Barry, H. (2009). The importance of sub-utterance prosody in predicting level of certainty. Proceedings of
NAACL HLT, 105-108.
Roach, P. (2009). English Phonetics and Phonology: Practical Course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Correspondence: tonya_samkovska@mail.ru

Antonina S. Samkovska, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Germanic and Finnish Philology in Kyiv
National Linguistic University. Her fields of interests are the linguistics of text and the theory of discourse.

Olena Sarbash
Department of English Philology, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 25 November 2011

The relevance of the work is determined above all the need in-depth study of ways of conceptualizing emotions
in the national pictures of the word because emotional concepts as elements of national mentality, are the important
source of knowledge of man’s inner world one or another nationality.
The object of the study is the emotional concept spheres of English, Ukrainian and Greek linguocultures.
The subject of the study is verbal representations of the emotional concept PLEASURE in different-ethnos
pictures of the world as the embodiment of the national outlook.
The purpose of the article is to determine and to describe the national-cultural specificity of the representation of
this concept in each linguoculture of the ethnic groups on the basis of the analysis of concept lexical means of
verbalization in three languages with different structures – English, Ukrainian and Modern Greek.
The tasks of the work are to analyze the semantic structure of lexical items that realize the concept pleasure in
the studied languages and to establish the common and distinctive features in their semantics.
In each language system there are signs of emotion that realize the available in some society idea of the nature of
emotion, its place in a number of other emotional reasons that cause it. The concept PLEASURE has a common
cognitive base for all three linguocultures and it is perceived as a positive emotion.
The concept PLEASURE is a complex mental formation, which is the prototype of its components HAPPINESS,
JOY and FUN.
The peculiarity of the concept PLEASURE in semantic space of English, Modern Greek and Ukrainian
languages is the presence within it four emotional meanings: “pleasure”, “joy”, “happiness” and “fun”, each of which is
represented in compared languages with a number of synonymic nominations that are in relations of inclusion
and intersection.
The difference between these languages is observed in the quantitative manifestation of assigned emotional
meanings. In English and Modern Greek languages emotional meaning “happiness” is quantitatively less represented,
and in the Ukrainian language this is emotional meaning “fun.”
Further perspectives of research are the study of associative and imaginative elements of positive emotional
concepts, the operation of positive emotional vocabulary in the text, as well as comparison of non-verbal manifestation
of positive emotions.

Research highlights
► The article deals with the study of concept Pleasure representation means in the three languages – English,
Ukrainian and Modern Greek. ► Comparative research of the semantic structure of the lexical units forming the
concept under study makes it possible to distinguish and describe national and cultural specific character in the three
lingual cultures.
Keywords: concept, emotion, emotional concept, conceptual sphere of emotions, concept nominative space.

Apresjan, Ju. D. (1995). Izbrannye trudy, 2: Integral’noe opisanie jazyka i sistemnaja leksikografija. M.: Shkola
“Jazyki russkoj kul’tury”.
Babenko, L. G. (1989). Leksicheskie sredstva oboznachenija jemocij v russkom jazyke. Sverdlovsk: Izd-vo Ural.

Babushkin, A. P. (1996). Tipy konceptov v lekciko-frazeologicheckoj semantike jazyka. Voronezh: Izd-vo
Voronezh. un-ta.
BPS, (2009). Bol’shoj psihologicheskij slovar’. M.: Izd-vo AST.
Krasavskij, N. A. (2001). Emocional’nye koncepty v nemeckoj i russkoj lingvokul’turah. Volgograd: Peremena.
Mjagkova, E. Ju. (2000). Emocional’no-chuvstvennyj komponent znachenija slova. Kursk: Izd-vo Kursk. gos.
ped. un-ta.
Nabiruhina, A. V. (1990). Leksiko-semanticheskoe pole “Pleasure” v sovremennom anglijskom jazyke. Avtoref.
dis. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. L.
Fomina, Z. E. (1995). Jemocional’no-ocenochnaja leksika sovremennogo nemeckogo jazyka. Dis. … d-ra filol.
nauk: 10.02.04. M.
Shahovskij, V. I. (2001). Jemocii i ih konceptualizacija v razlichnyh lingvokul’turnyh konceptah. Mezhdunar.
zhurnal slavistov: “Rusistika”, 1, 13-19.
Shahovskij, V. I. (2008). Lingvisticheskaja teorija jemocij. M.: Gnozis.

Sources and Abbreviations
VTSSUM, (2002). Velykyy tlumachnyy slovnyk suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi movy. K.: Irpin’; VTF “Perun”.
LDCE, (2006). Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Pearson ESL.
SOED, (1993). The Shorter Oxford Dictionary in Historical Principles, І-ІІ. Oxford University Press, 1993.
ΛΚΝ, (2002). Λεμηθό ηεο Κνηλήο Νενειιεληθήο. Θεζζαλονίκη: Απιζηοηελείο Παωεπιζηήμιο Θεζζαλονίκηρ.
ΝΕΛ, (2002). Νέν Ειιεληθό Λεμηθό ηεο Σπγρξνλήο Δεκνηηθήο Γιώζζαο. Αθήνα: Εκδοηικήρ Αθηνων.
ΜΕΛ, (2002). MEIZON Ειιεληθό Λεμηθό. Τεγόποςλορ Φςηπάκηρ.

Correspondence: sarbash_es@mail.ru
Olena S. Sarbash, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of English Philology in Donetsk
National University. Her research areas include cognitive linguistics and linguistics of emotions.

Evgenia Sazonova
Department of Foreign Languages, Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University, Luhansk, Ukraine

Available 11 November 2011

The development of modern information technologies, giving rise to appearance of new means of
communication on the Internet, enables the exploration of new linguistic phenomena, among which special attention
deserves such a phenomenon as the nickname. After all, anyone who enjoys a global network should introduce
ourselves, invent a name for himself (or be called her), that is, write your nickname.
Investigation of Internet names only begins and, in author`s opinion, is a key issue in the field of modern
linguistics. Nicknames investigate such linguists as A. Nikiforov, A. Balkunova, G. Hodorenko, A. Zhychkyna,
O. Horoshko, B. Bashayeva etc.
The purpose of the research is to identify different graphic decoration of Internet names, or nickname, on the
base of the Ukrainian, English and Italian languages.
The sources of factual material
The material of this research are Ukrainian, English and Italian nicknames that selected from different chat
rooms and forums.
Some network names reflect the characteristics of appearance or character of person’s emotional state,
professional activities and more. Sometimes the nickname can be determined by person’s age, gender, hobbies and
more. But it should be noted that there are many array of network names that hard to understand and analyze without
explanation of the owner of the name, history and explanations of extralinguistic factors that influenced the creation
antroponim of Internet user. Analyzed material allows us to conclude the need to study Internet names in the field of
modern linguistics, because the name is an integral part of the linguistic expression of personality in the global Internet.
The process of formation, existence and operation of the network names in the online discourse and the impact
on them extralinguistic environment needs a further investigation from the standpoint of modern linguistic knowledge.

Research highlights
► The article deals with different graphic styles of internet-names. ► The author provides the examples of
Ukrainian, English and Italian nicknames. ►She emphasizes the importance of studying the anthroponym system in the
Keywords: nickname, Internet communication, verbal personality, character.

Anikina, T. V. (2010). Imja sobstvennoe v internet-kommunikacii. Izvestija Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo
universiteta, 2 (75), 71-76.
Balkunova, A. S. (2009). Fonetiko-graficheskie osobennosti niknejmov. V mire nauchnyh otkrytij, 3.2, 9-10.
Golomidova, M. V. (2005). Russkaja antroponimicheskaja sistema na rubezhe vekov. Voprosy onomastiki, 2, 11-
Goroshko, E. I. (2008). Psiholingvistika Internet-kommunikacij. Voprosy psiholingvistiki, 7, 5-11.
Klimec, Ju. S. (2010). Funkcionirovanie precedentnyh imen v podrostkovoj subkul’ture. Vestnik Irkutskogo
gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta, 3 (11), 107-112.
Maksimova, T. V. (2006). Funkcional’no-kommunikativnoe prostranstvo imeni sobstvennogo. Vestnik VolGU.
Serija 2: Jazykoznanie, 5, 93-99.
Nikiforova, E. V. (2009). Sopostavitel’nyj analiz ponjatija «nik» i shodnyh emu jazykovyh javlenij. Materialy
dokladov XVI Mezhdunarodnoj konferencii studentov, aspirantov i molodyh uchenyh «Lomonosov». Moskva: MAKS
Press. E-portal: http://www.lomonosov-msu.ru/2009
Sherbak, A. S., & Burykin, A. A. (2009). K probleme vyjavlenija otlichitel’nyh osobennostej prozvishh ot
lichnogo imeni. Vestnik TGU, 9 (77), 213-217.

Correspondence: sweetsara1@rambler.ru
Evgenia O. Sazonova, Post-Graduate Student at the Department of Ukrainian Language and General Linguistics,
lecturer of Department of Foreign Languages in Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University (specialty “General
Linguistics”). The areas of her scientific interests are comparative grammar, Internet discourse.

Irina Senina
Department of Russian Language, Lomonosov Moscow National University, Moscow, Russia

Available 15 November 2011

A studying lexis from the point of view of its syntactical behavior discovers lack of traditional grammar classes.
Apart from (independent and auxiliary) parts of speech there is a group of units which exists between them. Existence
of such transitional zone mentions in native linguistics («structural elements of language» by L.V. Sherba [Shherba
2007: 328-329], S.D. Kanzelson singles out them in research of categories of «hidden» grammar [Kacnel’son 2002: 85-
88, 93]).
By means of functional-communicative approach they managed to reveal a part of such phenomenon, in
particular single out indicators semantic relations [Всеволодова 2000: 39-47], describe regular constructions such as
predicate [Vsevolodova, Kuz’menkova 2003] (in concept of Y.D. Apresyan they are colocators [Apresjan 2004, 2008]).
The work on this direction has just begun, at this stage it can be pointed out only the line of problematic spheres.
Despite of this, the observation of usage some independent words showed that they can take secondary, auxiliary
functions losing a part of its semantics. For description of such phenomena the term «structural words» has been used.
This article gives a review of classifiers as the class of structural word, its functional possibilities, variety and
range of given phenomenon of a language. In this problem there are many questions which should be examined in
modern Russian grammar.
To achieve the purpose should be solved following tasks: to define lexical structure of classifiers, a center and a
periphery of this class; to emphasize the main types of constructions which form the prototypical representatives of this
class of structural words; to describe the main types of expression transformation with the help of classifiers according
to the speaker‟s purposes; to point out a specificity of units functioning which compose a periphery of classifiers class;
to define relation between classifiers and other classes of structural words. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Classifiers are heterogeneous by their structure, position and functions. The question of difference between
classifiers, explicators and relators remains open [Всеволодова 2000: 40 47]. Such nouns as aim, condition, element,
subject, instrument, etc., being a part of predicate are strongly attached to relators because they are obligatory elements
of the structure, show cause-effect relations or relation between part and the whole. Being a part of description with
adjectives (uncharacteristic position for classifiers), names thing, item, device, establishment, means, etc., and action,
position, circumstance, etc., are close to explicators: in such kind of descriptions classifier is not noun, but adjective, the
structural word appears vacuous, not showing any concrete type of relation. Such kind of indications should
characterize explicators if we want to draw a line between classifiers and explicators.
The perspective is to introduce the clear operational criteria of classifiers release, the formation of their full list
and detailed description of peculiarities of their functioning that let to expand conception of structural words and their
functions in a language.

Research highlights
► The idea of structural words combines such categorematic words that can function like syntactic words in
some positions. ► These categorematic words have special semantic features: on the one hand, their denotate is
indefinite, that‟s why they are optional in some cases, on the other, they designate deferent types of relations. ► Among
structural words we are interested in classifiers, nouns of abstract or genre semantic (event, condition, symptom,
feeling, person, animal, object …). ► They can designate subsumption relation and transform the semantic structure of
the sentence in this or that way to achieve the object of the speaker. ► The functional potential of classifiers as
transformers is rather wide: speaker‟s goals can be of semantic, communicative or stylistic type.
Keywords: structural words, classifiers, abstract nouns, sentence levels, functions.

Apresjan, Ju. D. (2004). O semanticheskoj nepustote i motivirovannosti glagol’nyh leksicheskih funkcij. Voprosy
jazykoznanija, 4, 3-18.
Apresjan, Ju. D. (2008). O semanticheskoj motivirovannosti leksicheskih funkcij-kollokatov. Voprosy
jazykoznanija, 5, 3-33.
Vinogradov, V. V. (1960). Vvedenie. Grammatika russkogo jazyka. Sintaksis. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR,
1960, 5-111.
Vol’f, E. M. (1982). Ocenki sostojanij. Semanticheskie tipy predikatov. Moskva: Nauka.
Vol’f, E. M. (1982). K voprosu o klassifikatorah priznakov. Filologicheskie nauki, 2, 32-38.
Vsevolodova, M. V. (2000). Teorija funkcional’no-kommunikativnogo sintaksisa. Moskva: Izd-vo MGU.
Vsevolodova, M. V. (2010). Jazyk i ego mesto v mirozdanii. K voprosu ob aktual’noj grammatike.
IV Mezhdunarodnyj kongress issledovatelej russkogo jazyka “Russkij jazyk: istoricheskie sud’by i sovremennost'”:
Trudy i materialy, 12-13. Moskva: Izd-vo MGU.
Vsevolodova, M. V., & Kuz’menkova, V. A. (2003). Opisatel’nye predikaty kak fragment russkoj sintaksicheskoj
sistemy. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 9. Filologija, 5, 7-29.
Vsevolodova, M. V., & Kulikova, E. V. (2009). Grammatika slovosochetanij v kontekste funkcional’no-
kommunikativnoj lingvodidakticheskoj modeli jazyka. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 9. Filologija, 4, 67-88.
Kacnel’son, S. D. (1972). Tipologija jazyka i rechevoe myshlenie. L.: Nauka.
Kacnel’son, S. D. (2002). Tipologija jazyka i rechevoe myshlenie. M.: URSS.
Krejdlin, G. E. (1993). Taksonomija i aksiologija v jazyke i tekste (predlozhenija taksonomicheskoj
harakterizacii). Logicheskij analiz jazyka. Mental’nye dejstvija, 30-40. Moskva: Nauka.
NKRJa. Nacional’nyj korpus russkogo jazyka. E-portal: http://www.ruscorpora.ru.
Russkaja grammatika, (1980). Russkaja grammatika (І). Moskva: Nauka.
Hovalkina, A. (2001). K voprosu ob opisanii stroevyh edinic (na materiale funkcional’no-semanticheskogo polja
ukazatelej maloj velichiny priznaka). II Mezhdunarodnyj kongress issledovatelej russkogo jazyka “Russkij jazyk:
istoricheskie sud’by i sovremennost'”. Sbornik tezisov, 150-151. Moskva: Izd-vo MGU.
Shherba, L. V. (1974). Jazykovaja sistema i rechevaja dejatel’nost’. L.: Nauka.
Shherba, L. V. (2007). Jazykovaja sistema i rechevaja dejatel’nost’. M.: URSS.
Keith, A. (1977). Classifiers. Language, 53 (2), 285-311.

Correspondence: senina_irina@mail.ru
Irina S. Senina, Post-Graduate Student, laboratory assistant at Department of Russian Language in Lomonosov
Moscow National University. Her research area is functional grammar.


Mykhailo Seniv
Deartment of World Literature and Classic Philology, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 21 November 2011

The article is devoted to the study of structural peculiarities of verbs of motion (VM) in German (compare:
absausen – „to go hastily‟, klotzen – „to wander‟, schlappen – „to move very slowly‟, verschlupfen – „to go secretly‟ and
so on).
VM make up a lexical-semantic group, like verbs of speech, mental activity, physical impact and so on. VM‟s
include verbs denoting the change of the location of an object or a subject in relation to some reference point. The
motion subject is the main agent of the situation, characterized by Yu.D. Apresyan as a dynamic active creature. The
object is something the subject‟s action is directed at. Taking into account the fact that the article studies VM‟s in the
German spoken language, it should be stressed that colloquial speech is actualized orally in a situation of natural
VM‟s have been studied in Indo-European languages of different structure, including German (V. Ibragimova,
E. Kuznetsova, V. Plungyan, E. Rakhilina, S. Sokolova, M. Stepanova, V. Fleischer, N. Shamne). However the
structural peculiarities of VM‟s, as well as their specific features in the colloquial speech have not been thoroughly
studied, which makes this subject matter a topical one.
The aim of the article is to reveal structural peculiaries of VM‟s in colloquial German.
The case study of the data taken by means of the continuous selection from Wӧrterbuch der : deutschen
Umgangssprache von H.Kьper (Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag, 1957. – 959 S.) has been performed. 406 VM‟s of
colloquial German have been selected.
There are different structural types of words: simple (root), derivative (derivation), and compound.
The words of simple or root type are not derived from any other words, they consist of a root and an infinitive
suffix, i.e the characteristics of grammatical forms, -(e)n, compare: bьxen – „run quickly‟; gratschen – „to walk slowly‟
and so on.
The words of the derivative type formed by means of affixes are called affixal. The central position in the system
of German word-formation belongs to the affixation. Among the affixal types of word-formation the most widely used
are suffixal, prefixal, suffixal-prefixal: ab-fegen „to dash away‟, ver-duften – „to run away secretly‟. If affixes are not
used to form new words, the type of word-formation is called non-affixal, for example: kurven – „to turn‟ Kurve
„turn‟. The word-formation makes it possible for a speaker not to be precise and accurate while expressing the thought,
and the statement appears to have many meanings, compare: hegel-n – Hegel denken/sprechen/schreiben.
The compound words are frequent in German. To form compound words two (rarely more than two) stems are
used: the second (the main) stem (a verb) and the first stem (a verb, a name, indeclinable parts of speech), for example:
autobummeln „to drive slowly‟, flitzengehen „to run away‟, stiftengehen „to run way, to go away secretly ‟.
Having analyzed VM‟s of colloquial German we have classified them into the following groups (table 1).

No VM‟s structural types Number of VM‟s in
1 Root VM‟s 28 7
2 Derivative VM‟s 301 74
3 Compound VM‟s 77 19
Total 406 100

The purpose of the article is to analyze verbs of motion in colloquial German and to define structural and
semantic peculiarities of verbs of motion.
The following objectives have been worked out in the article:
 Main semantic and structural peculiarities of verbs of motion in colloquial German have been studied;
 Verbs of motion have been classified according main semantic and structural peculiarities.
Main structural and semantic peculiarities of verbs of motion in colloquial German have been determined.
Structural peculiarities of verbs of motion include different types of word-formation. Three structural types of verbs of
motion: simple, derivative and compound have been singled out. Semantic peculiarities of verbs of motion in German
include the category of subject and object as well as division of verbs according to the “intensity of motion”.

The comparative analysis of verbs denoting motion in Indo-European languages of different structure
(particularly the colloquial variants of these languages) is the perspective of this research.

Research highlights
► The paper deals with lexical peculiarities of colloquial German, particularly with the use of verbs denoting
motion. ► The structural and semantic peculiarities of verbs denoting motion have been studied. ►The verbs denoting
motion have been classified according to their main semantic and structural peculiarities.
Keywords: verbs denoting motion, structure, semantics, types of word-formation, affixation.

Apresian, Yu. D. (1995). Integralnoie opisaniie yazyka i sistemnaia leksikografiia. Moskva: Yazyki russkoi
Bondarko, A. V. (1983). Kategirialnyie situacii (K teorii funkcional’noj grammatiki). Voprosy yazykoznaniia, 2,
Vsevolodova, M. V., & Vladimirskii, E. N. (1982). Sposoby vyrazheniia prostranstvennyh otnoshenii v
sovremennom russkom yazyke. Moskva: Russkii yazyk.
Gak, V. G. (1966). Besedy o frantsuzskom slove. Moskva: Mezhdunarodnyie otnosheniia.
Grytsyk, N. I. (1981). Glagoly so znacheniiem priblizheniia v ukrainskom yazyke v sopostavlenii s russkim.
Ibragimova, V. L. (1992). Semantika glagolov prostranstvennoi lokalizacii v sovremennom russkom yazyke. Ufa:
Izd-vo Bashkirskogo Universiteta.
Ivanenko, Z. I. (1981). Systema pryjmennykovykh konstrukcii adverbialnogo znachenna. Kiiev, Odessa: Vyshcha
Klimenko, N. F., & Peshchak, M. M., & Savchenko, S. F. (1982). Formalizovani osnovy semantychnoii
klasyfikacii leksyky. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Kuznetsova, E. V. (1974). Russkiie glagoly “priobshsheniia obiekta” kak funktsionalno-semanticheskii klass
slov. Avtoref. dis. … dokt. filol. nauk. Moskva.
Maysak, T. A., & Rahilina, E. V. (2003). Tipologiia system glagolnoi leksiki. Grammaticheskiie kategorii:
iierarhii, sviazi, vzaimodeistviia, 219-228. Sankt-Peterburg.
Maysak, T. A. (2005). Tipologiia grammatikalizacii konstruktsii s glagolami dvizheniia i glagolami pozitsii,
101-105. Moskva: Yazyki slavianskikh kultur.
Plungian, V. A. (2000). Obshchaia morfologiia. Moskva: Editirial URSS.
Rahilina, E. V., & Prokofieva, I. A. (2004). Rodstvennyie yazyki kak obiekt leksicheskoj tipologii. Voprosy
yazykoznanii, 1, 60-77.
Seniv, M. G. (2004). Prefiksalni diieslova prostorovoji lokalizovanosti u klasychnyh movah. Funktsionalno-
komunikatyvni aspekty gramatyky i tekstu, 154-169. Donetsk: DonNU.
Sokolova, S. O. (2003). Prefiksalnyi slovotvir diiesliv u suchasnii ukraiinskii movi. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Stepanova, M. D., & Fliaisher, V. (1984). Teoreticheskiie osnovy slovoobrazovaniia v nemeckom yazyke, 137-
146. Moskva: Vysshaia shkola.
Usatenko, T. F. (1970). Glagoly peremeshcheniia sovremennogo ukrainskogo literaturnogo yazyka. Avtoref. dis.
… kand. filol. nauk. Lvov.
Shamne, N. L. (2000). Glagoly dvizheniia kak sredstvo vyrazheniia sybiektivno-obiektivnyh otnoshenii v
nemeckom i russkom yazykakh, 1-9. Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo gos. Universiteta.
Kьhnhold, L., & Wellmann, H. (1973). Deutsche Wortbildund Typen und Tendenzen in der Gegenwartssprache.
Dьsseldorf: Pдdagogisher Verlag Schwann, XXIX, 9-27.

Correspondence: wlcph.dep@donnu.edu.ua
Mykhailo G. Seniv, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of Department of World Literature and Classic
Philology in Donetsk National University. His areas of research interests include comparative-historical and typological
linguistics, functional grammar, theory of German languages and classic philology.

Olena Shatilova
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 16 November 2011

The relevance of the research on this problem due to the fact that undismembered sentences have no clear idea of
formal-syntactical and semantic-syntactical division, ie it`s not embodied in formal-syntactical and semantic-syntactical
components. Also the question of the impossibility of internal syntactic division of sentences equivalents based on their
excellent separations of lexical-grammatical sentences filling – particles, modal words, interjections and phraseological
constructions, which in the syntactic structure of language not normally associated the syntactic role of sentence.
The object of the paper is the syntactically undismembered sentences and its inherent logical-specific
grammatical features.
The purpose of the work is to analyze the structure of lexical and grammatical content of undismembered
sentences in modern Ukrainian language.
The purpose includes the following tasks: 1) to explore the history of studying undismembered sentences; 2) to
trace the structure of undismembered sentences; 3) to determine the morphological features of structure of incentive
undismembered sentences; 4) to identify the incentive undismembered sentences of journalistic texts at the beginning of
the XXIth century; 5) to classify the identified incentive structures.
Sources of the research
Sources of the research are the Ukrainian publicistic texts at the beginning of the XXIth century.
Thus, undismembered sentences should be treated as special communication constructions, but non-sentence
ones, i.e., which themselves do not constitute a sentence. The undismembered sentences treated as a kind of syntactic
means of expressing of modal meanings through which the speaker fixes and sells its unequal treatment of reality.
The undismembered sentence originally comparable to conventional sentences, they are inherent in some of
those features which are fully consistent with the language features of real sentences.
The undismembered sentences express the characteristic of self-sentence modal-logical categories of affirmation,
negation, questions, prompting and more. According to this also decided to distinguish between types of sentences for
communicative attitude, emotional and expressive color, the ratio of objective reality and logical criteria.
The structure of incentive equivalents of sentence are completely identical the structure of sentence equivalents
in general. However, incentive undismembered sentences have their own specific morphological structure design.
Studying incentive undismembered equivalents of sentences is a very promising thing. Question of intensive
undismembered sentences requires a holistic, capacious learning to their extensive training, systematization and

Research highlights
► The history of the undismembered sentences study has been tracked. ► Their structure and features of
morphological forms have been studied. ► The status of hortatory undismembered sentences has been clarified, and
their features have been revealed. ► Attempt of supplement of classification of sentences hortatory equivalents has
been made.
Keywords: undismembered sentence, sentence equivalent, hortatory sentence, structure.

Bilodid, I. K. (1972). Suchasna ukrayins’ka literaturna mova. Syntaksys. K.: Nauk. dumka.
Vykhovanets’, I. R. (1973). Hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy. Syntaksys. K.: Lybid’.
Vintoniv, M. O. (2008). Nechlenovani rechennya v suchasniy ukrayins’kiy movi: status, funktsiyi.
Movoznavchyy visnyk: Zb. nauk. prats’, 6, 44-48. Cherkasy.
Dudyk, P. S. (1999). Iz syntaksysu prostoho rechennya: Syntaksys. Rechennya. Klasyfikatsiya rechen’.
Odnoskladni rechennya. Nepovni rechennya. Ekvivalenty rechennya. Z navchal’no-kontrol’nymy zavdannyamy,
vpravamy. Vinnytsya.
Zahnitko, A. P. (2009). Ekvivalenty rechennya: status, obsyah i funktsiy na typolohiya. Linhvistychni studiyi: zb.
nauk. prats’, 19, 79-91. Donets’k: DonNU.
Zahnitko, A. P. (2011). Teoretychna hramatyka suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi movy. Morfolohiya. Syntaksys.
Donets’k: TOV “VKF “BAO”.
Karans’ka, M. U. (1995). Syntaksys suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi literaturnoyi movy. K.: Lybid’.
Melikjan, V. Ju. (2001). Ocherki po sintaksisu nechlenimogo predlozhenija. Rostov-na-Donu: Izd-vo RGPU.
Mel’nychuk, O. S. (1966). Rozvytok struktury slov‘yans’koho rechennya. K.: Naukova dumka.
Peshkovskij, A. M. (1956). Russkij sintaksis v nauchnom osveshhenii. M.: Uchpedgiz.
Russkaja, (1980). Russkaja gramatika, 2: Sintaksis. M.: Nauka.
Slyn’ko, I. I. (1994). Syntaksys suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi movy. Problemni pytannya. K.: Vyshcha shk. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Shahmatov, A. A. (1941). Sintaksis russkogo jazyka. M.: Uchpedgiz.
Shvedova, N. Ju. (1974). Mesto semantiki v opisatel’noj grammatike (sintaksis). Grammaticheskoe opisanie
slavjanskih jazykov, 105-121. M.
Shul’zhuk, K. F. (2004). Syntaksys ukrayins’koyi movy. K.: Vydavnychyy tsentr “Akademiya”.

Correspondence: shatilova_olena@mail.ru
Olena S. Shatilova, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics in
Donetsk National University, Assistant at Department of Ukrainian and Russian Languages in Donetsk National
Technical University. Her research area includes the grammar of Ukrainian language, in particular – the syntax.

Iryna Shkitska
Department of Documentation, Information Activity and Ukrainian Studies in Ternopil National Economic
University, Ternopil, Ukraine

Available 24 November 2011

In modern linguistics there is intensifying of the researchers‟ interest to the communicative-pragmatic aspect of
language and spread of look at the language not only as the form of vital functions of man, display of his personality
descriptions, method of organization of interpersonality intercourse, but also as the mean of influence.
Studying the mechanisms of realization of vocal influence, nowadays linguists often use a triad “strategy”,
“tactic”, “reception”.
Among communicative strategies speaker uses in order to change conduct or mental and emotionally-psychical
state of interlocutor, manipulative positive strategy, the basic genre of which is a complimentary utterance – utterance
which contains the positive estimation of addressee from the side of speaker and used by him, is distinguished, to cause
the positive emotional state for an addressee.
Many investigators devoted their explorations to the studying of complimentary utterances. Among them are
N. Wolfson, J. Manes, Y.S. Petelina, L.O. Kokoilo, V.Y. Mishchenko, V.V. Leontiev. In mentioned linguistic works
complimentary utterances were analyzed either from positions of theory of communicative acts and theory of
communicative activity, or from the positions of conceptions of politeness, where a basic social function between
speakers, demonstration of kind intentions appear as their establishment and intensifying of solidarity.
Except the functions of transmission of speaker aspiration to do pleasant to the addressee, positive relational
expression to him, complimentary utterances can be used for realization of influence, including manipulative one.
Describing their structurally-semantic features, researchers here and there did not take into consideration that these
features of complimentary utterances were caused by the purpose of their use.
Although some scientists described the pragmatic aspects of compliments (for example, [Kokojlo 1995],
[Mishhenko 1999], [Mudrova 2007]) and fluently specified on the big amount of utterances with positive semantics and
on possibility of their use as the means of influence, however thoroughly in the light of manipulative influence they
were not analyzed, which predetermines the actuality of our scientific investigation.
The purpose of the article is to show the complimentary utterances as the genre of the manipulative positive
strategy, to find out and describe the methods of strengthening influential function of complimentary utterances, to
characterize the means of the verbalization of these utterances.
Thus, the influential function of complimentary utterances in manipulative strategy of positive increases by the
means of such communicative modes, as the “complimentary utterance by someone‟s mouth”, report about general
recognition of accomplishments of addressee, use of universal utterances in a complimentary function, “complimentary
utterance to the hidden addressee”, “compliment on the strangers‟ eyes”, “complimentary utterance on a background
self-abasement”, “specification / generalization of complimentary utterance”, utterance of surprise or fascination
concerning a presence of positive traits in the interlocutor‟s character, his accomplishments, “double compliment” and
The exploration of the influence of social and communicative factors on the selection of speech means during the
realization of manipulative positive strategy is considered to be perspective direction in further studies.

Research highlights
► Complimentary utterances are examined as the means of influence within realization of the manipulative
positive strategies. ► The methods of intensifying the influential function of compliments are sifted and described.
► The speech means which provide verbalization of these modes are characterized.
Keywords: manipulative positive strategy, the method of intensifying the influential function, complimentary
utterance, verbal representation.

Garner, A., & Piz, A. (2009). Jazyk razgovora: Kak razgovarivat’, chtoby dogovorit’sja. Kak sovmestit’ radost’
obshhenija i pol’zu ubezhdenija: psihologicheskij bestseller. Moskva: Izd vo JeKSMO-Press.
Kokojlo, L. A. (1995). Komplimentarnye vyskazyvanija v sovremennom anglijskom jazyke: (struktura,
semantika, upotreblenie). Diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Kyyiv.
Mishhenko, V. Ja. (1999). Kompliment v rechevom povedenii predstavitelej anglojazychnyh (britanskoj i
amerikanskoj) kul’tur. Diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Harkіv.
Mudrova, E. V. (2007). Kompliment kak pervichnyj rechevoj zhanr. Avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk: spec.
10.02.01 “Russkij jazyk”. Taganrog: Taganrogskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogicheskij institut.
Nikolaeva, T. M. (1988). Lingvisticheskaja demagogija. Pragmatika i problemy intensional’nosti. Moskva: IJa
AN SSSR (ss. 154-165).
Pankratov, V. N. (2000). Manipuljacii v obshhenii i ih nejtralizacii: prakticheskoe rukovodstvo. Moskva: Izd vo
Instituta Psihoterapii (Serija: Psihologija uspeha i jeffektivnogo upravlenija).
Selivanova, E. A. (2004). Osnovy lingvisticheskoj teorii teksta i kommunikacii. Kyyiv: Brama, izd.
Vovchok O. Ju.
Shejnov, V. P. (2000). Ritorika. Minsk: Amalfeja.

Correspondence: shkitska@mail.ru
Iryna Y. Shkitska, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Documentation, Information
Activity and Ukrainian Studies in Ternopil National Economic University. Her scientific interests include the grammar
of the modern Ukrainian language, in particular syntax, the pragmatics and the sociolinguistics.

Vira Shkolyarenko
Department of Germanic Philology, Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy region, Ukraine

Available 21 November 2011

In the Middle High German period there is a significant increase in the number of works written by
representatives of various segments of the population. This is due to several factors, including cultural and historical:
the emergence and forming, and then a gradual collapse of the secular culture of chivalry, the emergence of urban
culture, which is formed with the growth of the medieval city [Guhman 1983: 71]. Along with the religious literature
(translated associated in most cases from Latin) of the original German prose (lyric, epic, poetic drama) is the
development, which is “…more distributed, limits the use of Latin in poetic forms, especially when in considering issues
of scientific and practical” [Bah 1956: 108]. All these elements served as an important incentive that contributed to the
expansion of German phraseology as well as the formation of new established phrases (EP). The emergence and
development of new genres and the associated “restoration” of works subject could promote a greater stylistic
differentiation of corps of CE. On the restoration and increase of German phraseology pays attention N.I. Rakhmanova
in connection with the extension of noun phraseological compatibility, which were, for example, the key concepts
of ethics of the Middle Ages [Rahmanova 2002: 122].
The purpose of the article is the establishment of national and cultural factors of origin and development of
phraseological units in the Middle High German period.
Analysis of PU by ethnic, social, cultural, psychological aspects makes it possible to determine the group of
phraseologisms, composed on the base of this study, which are universal, on the one hand, because they characterize a
human life at any stage of a history. On the other hand, in content they are culturally conditioned that primarily is due to
specific outlook and attitude of medieval man. On the basis of this cultural analysis the following key areas for the ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

considered age culture that served as sources of forming phraseological patterns: German mythology, ancient law
and justice, rural customs and agriculture, chivalric culture and Christianity, and others, have been identified.
This research opens new perspectives in the study of PU as in synchronism at earlier stages and in diachronism
of German. This experience can be used in the analysis of texts of different subjects, different genres and different eras.

Research highlights
► A new approach to the study of German phraseology from diachronic aspect of linguoculturology, which
consists in identification of national-cultural factors relevant for the formation of phraseological system of Middle High
German has been suggested. ► The criteria for establishing the national-cultural specificity of phraseology have been
Keywords: Middle High German, set expression, phraseological unit, national-cultural factors.

Bah, A. (1956). Istorija nemeckogo jazyka. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo inostrannoj literatury.
Le Goff, Zh. (1992). Civilizacija srednevekovogo Zapada. Moskva: Progress.
Gurevich, A. Ja. (1990). Srednevekovyj mir: kul’tura bezmolvstvujushhego bol’shinstva. Moskva: Iskusstvo.
Guhman, M. M. (1983). Istorija nemeckogo literaturnogo jazyka IХ-ХV vv. Moskva: Nauka.
Darkevich, V. P. (1988). Narodnaja kul’tura srednevekov’ja. Moskva: Nauka.
Zhluktenko, Ju. O., & Javors’ka, T. A. (1986). Vstup do germans’kogo movoznavstva. Kyyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
Makovskij, M. M. (2004). Jetimologicheskij slovar’ sovremennogo nemeckogo jazyka. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo
Rahmanova, N. I. (2002). Frazeologija v kontekste srednevekovoj jetiki. Realizacija mezhdisciplinarnoj
paradigmy v razlichnyh tipah teksta. Moskva, 465, 116-127.
Eggers, H. (1965). Deutsche Sprachgeschichte. Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, І.

Correspondence: vira34@yandex.ru
Vira I. Shkolyarenko, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of Department Germanic Philology, Makarenko
Sumy State Pedagogical University. Her research areas include German Phraseology (diachronic aspect),

Yaryna Shvets
Department of Theory and Practice of Translation, Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and
Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine

Availible 23 November 2011

Arthurian discourse considered as a special type of literary and artistic speech that constituted by texts of the
legends of King Arthur, made by the British canons of mentality of relevant historical period and characterized by
dominant system of values, objectived by specific language tools.
Author can add precedent personalities of the legends of King Arthur to such valuable dominants of Arthurian
The object of this work is male and female precedent personalities.
Subject of this work is a conceptual representation of male and female precedent personalities in Arthurian
Purpose of this work is in researching of male and female precedent personalities and their conceptual
representation in Arthurian discourse.
Find out a conceptual expression of male precedent personalities: KING ARTHUR, MERLIN, MORDRED and
female precedent personalities: GUINEVERE, MORGANA and LADY OF THE LAKE.

To summarize, note that: 1) precedent personalities of ARTHUR, MERLIN, MORDRED, GUINEVERE,
MORGANA and LADY, which main feature is displaying of valuable characteristics of male and female figures in
British linguocultural area, Ethnic and linguocultural knowledge, founds their expression in context of language of
British culture at XVIth – XXIth centuries;
2) the content and structure of precedent personalities actualizes through meaning of linguistic units that
represents them, as well as dictionary definitions and speech contexts. Lexicographic sources and work of British and
American scientists that devoted to the study Arthurian symbols, indicates cultural activity and importance of
researches of precedent personalities. Initial meanings, embodied by precedent personalities in T. Melori “Death of
Arthur” and concepts, highlighted on it, actualizes during XVIth – XXth centuries and remains unchanged, but gets a
new valuable signs, which leads to an additional conceptual representation;
3) the integral values of researched precedent personalities appear in the trinity: positive-evaluative, neutral
evaluative, and sometimes negative-evaluative factors of constituting. Value of opposite signs in the percentage is
almost the same;
4) the precedent personalities ARTHUR, MERLIN, MORDRED forms 5 gender stereotypes that characterize the
knights at the court of King Arthur: 1) Knight-warrior (concepts “courage”, “invincibility”, “generosity” vs “militant”,
“cruelty”, “hostility”, “anger”); 2) Knight-friend (concepts of “respect”, “dedication” (to the order) vs “hostility”,
“treason”); 3) Knight-ruler (Concepts of “magic”, “leadership” vs “uzurperity”); 4) Knight-lover (features “love to the
ladies “vs” “adultery”, “treason”); 5) Knight-guardian of the Holy Grail (features “devotion”, “grace” vs “sincerity”);
5) the precedent personalities GUINEVERE, MORGANA and LADY LAKE forms 5 gender binary female
stereotypes: “Kindness” vs “anger”, “witchery”, “treachery” vs “friendliness”, “tenderness”, “adultery”, “tempting”,
“mystery” vs “love”, “anger” vs “nobility”, “treachery” vs “sincerity”, “masculinity ” vs “femininity”;
6) BNC fixes use of precedent personalities in 6 types of discourse: conversational, literary, official, business,
academic, journalistic and section named “other”.
Perspective for further viewing will be deeper research in conceptual domains “Arthurian man” and “Arthurian
woman” based on the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.

Research highlights
► The article highlights male and female precedent personalities of KING ARTHUR, MERLIN, MORDRED,
GUINEVERE, MORGANA and LADY OF THE LAKE in the legends of King Arthur, analyzes linguistic features of
their actualization. ► While researching the three components: conceptual, figurative and evaluative layers, the
processes of primary and secondary nominations of researched objects are viewed.
Keywords: precedent personalities, the legends of King Arthur, Arthurian discourse, nomination.

Karasik, V. I. (2007). Lingvokul’turnyj tipazh. Jazyk. Tekst. Diskurs. Nauchnyj al’manah Stavropol’skogo
otdelenija RALK, 5, 86-89. Stavropol’: PGLU.
Koks, S. (2008). Korol’ Artur i Svjatoj graal’ ot A do Ja. Moskva: AST: AST MOSKVA.
Krasnyh, V. V. (2002). Jetnopsiholingvistika i lingvokul’turologija kak konstituenty novoj nauchnoj paradigmy.
Sfera jazyka i pragmatika rechevogo obshhenija, 1. Krasnodar.
Prykhod’ko, A. M. (2008). Kontsepty i kontseptosystemy v kohnityvno-dyskursyvniy paradyhmi linhvistyky.
Zaporizhzhya: Prem‟yer.
Sapkovskij, A. (1995). Mir korolja Artura. E-portal:
BNC. British National Corpus. E-portal: http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/x.asp.
Day, David, (1995). The Quest for King Arthur. London & New York: BCA.
Green, Thomas, (2007). Concepts of Arthur. Stroud: Tempus.

Correspondence: jaryna_schwetzj@ukr.net
Yarina I. Shvets, Lecturer at Department of Theory and Practice of Translation in Ivano-Frankivsk National
Technical University of Oil and Gas. Her research area includes the theory of discourse.

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