Лінгвістичні студії: Збірник наукових праць.


Julia Silina
Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, Voronezh State University, Voronezh region, Russia

Available 25 November 2011

Relevance of this article is determined by the causes, conditions and consequences of language changes which
are interesting and frequency enough nowadays. At the same time, the singling out and more active development of
lexical-semantic prognostics was an important tool for prediction of the future condition of lexical sphere as the most
dynamic layer of language [Kretov 1995].
This research was performed in keeping with the linguistic prognostics and was an attempt of qualitative
(semiotic) and quantitative (functional) analysis of visual perception verb groups which form a separate class of words,
both in functional as well as in lexical terms in French language. First of all, “According to the verb-in-the-centre
conception, which is based on Lucien Tesniиre theory, the verb is the centre of utterance and it contains the situation in
folded condition” [Charykova 1998: 87]. Second, in the linguistic literature it indicates the language a little bit fills up at
the expense of verbal neologisms. Thus, author expects that exactly the verbal lexical material will give the most
trustworthy results which will not be prone to accidents. Third, the lexical-semantic group (LSG) of visual perception
(VP) includes high-frequency French verbs and consequently it is on interest both in general theoretical aspects and in
the practice of teaching French.
In this paper, author sets a goal – to analyze the dynamics of functional loading (FL) on the lexical-semantic
group of visual perception in French narrative prose during the XXth century.
To achieve the purpose of the study author has solved the following tasks:
1. Determination of the FL size on lexical-semantic field of visual perception (LSF of VP) in the first half and
the second half of XXth century.
2. Revealing of the FL distribution on the LSG of VP in each of the periods.
3. Analysis of the FL on the lexical-semantic units (LSU) within each of LSG of VP during the XXth century.
4. Comparison of the results received by the first half and the second half of the XXth century.
Sources of factual material
The sources of this study are the French narrative prose texts of 20 different authors (each chronological section
is represented by 10 different authors). Text samples were investigated in full (to the end of sentence, paragraph,
chapter), but it were the same size not always. The main condition was the same number of studied units – 250 in each
text (if it was necessary there were several texts by one author). Every text is original and concerns to the time frame of
the certain chronological profile.
Performed analysis allows concluding that: firstly, the verbs expressing an active process of visual perception
were popular among authors of the end of the XXth century. Secondly, this century is characterized by the instability of
the FL distribution on the LSG of VP. Third, there were not the significant changes inside the LSG of VP, the structural
units of group stayed stable enough during all the century. And, fourthly, author calculated the FL on the LSU, and this
allows her to determine the location of the unit not only in the functional hierarchy of the analyzed text, but also in the
frame of all the studied period of time.
The ultimate goal of the study is prediction of the FL dynamics in the three French verbs LSG of visual
perception (looking, vision and contemplation) in the second half of the XXIth century.

Research highlights
► The article presents qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nominations of visual perception (VP) in the
French language. ► The purpose of the research is to compare the functional loading on a lexical-semantic field of
visual perception (VP), on lexical-semantic groups of (VP) and on lexical-semantic units of VP in the first and the
second parts of the XXth century. ► The results are analyzed.
Keywords: linguistic prognostics, visual perception, narrative text, functional loading, lexical-semantic field,
lexical-semantic group, lexical-semantic unit.

Dombrovskaja, I. V. (2009). Dinamika i prognostika leksiko-semanticheskoj gruppy zritel’nogo vosprijatija v
amerikanskom variante anglijskogo jazyka. Voronezh: Izd.- poligrafich. centr Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo
Kretov, A. A. (1980). Semanticheskie processy v leksiko-semanticheskoj gruppe glagolov zritel’nogo vosprijatija
sovremennogo russkogo jazyka. Diss. … kand. filol. nauk. Voronezh.
Kretov, A. A. (1994) Osnovy leksiko-semanticheskoj prognostiki. Avtoref. diss. … dokt. filol. nauk. Moskva.
Kretov, A. A. (1995). Lingvisticheskaja prognostika kak deziderata teorii jazyka. Lingvistika na ishode XX veka:
itogi i perspektivy. Tezisy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii, I, 267 269. ABSTRACTS

Kretov, A. A. (1995). Upotreblenie glagolov zrenija v hudozhestvennoj proze I. A. Bunina. I. A. Bunin i russkaja
kul’tura XIX-XX vekov: tez. Mezhdun. nauch. konf., posvjashhennoj 125-letiju so dnja rozhdenija pisatelja, 83-87.
Kretov, A. A. (2006). Osnovy leksiko-semanticheskoj prognostiki. Voronezh: Voronezhskij gosudarstvennyj
Molchanova, L. V. (2007). Kachestvennyj i kolichestvennyj aspekty leksiko-semanticheskoj prognostiki.
Voronezh: Voronezhskij gosudarstvennyj universitet.
Tolmachev, M. V. (1961). Marsel’ Prust: “V poiskah utrachennogo vremeni”. Vestnik istorii mirovoj kul’tury, 6,
Charykova, O. I. (1998). Glagol kak sredstvo organizacii hudozhestvennogo teksta. Russkij jazyk konca XX veka,
Sharov, S. A. Chastotnyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka S. A. Sharova. E-portal:
http://www.artint.ru/projects/frqlist.asp (data obrashhenija 4.03.2011).

Correspondence: julisil1@mail.ru
Julia A. Silina, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at the Faculty of
Romance-Germanic Philology in Voronezh State University, Senior Laboratory Assistant of Regional French Language
Centre in Voronezh. Her research areas include text linguistics, functional grammar of French language in diachronism
and synchronism.

Victoria Sopachova
Department of English Philology, Black Sea State University Petro Mohyla, Mykolayiv, Ukraine

Available 14 November 2011

In modern linguistics the one of the important issues is to establish typological features of languages,
including research the analytism and syntetism. There is a tradition to show signs of the syntetycality and analiticality
not only in morphological, but also in derivational and syntactic systems of language [Vykhovanets 1993: 217; Dubova
2006: 17, 27]. However, general studies of analytism and syntetism on derivational and syntactic levels of language
system does not exist. This work will attempt to contribute to research on the syntactic level the analytism of language
The purpose of the work is to establish the similar and different features of the analytical predicative syntaxemes
of two- and one-member sentences of the Ukraine language.
The implementation of the purpose provided the solution of such tasks: 1) to identify the formatives by
which formed the analytical predicative syntaxemes with value voice changes; 2) to establish the morphological and
semantic characteristics of the main component of analytical predicative syntaxemes; 3) to determine the dependence
of the components of analytical predicative syntaxemes on the type of sentence.
Analytical predicative syntaxemes with value of state changes are characteristic of both types of sentences:
the two- and one-member. The similarity of the structure of analytical predicative syntaxemes in both types is that the
formatives ставати (стати), робитися (зробитися) are typical for these syntaxemes. The specific features of the
structure of analytical predicative syntax of the value of state changes are the following: 1) two-member sentences it is
possible to use the formatives перетворюватися (перетворитися) and набути (набувати) (unlike one-
member sentences); 2) in two-member sentences the main component cannot be expressed with the predicative
(unlike the main component of these syntaxemes in one-member sentences); 3) in one-member sentences the main
component cannot be expressed with the case forms of nouns. Common semantics for analytical predicative syntaxemes
in two- and one-member sentences is that these ones may be relevant for voice changes in the internal state. Since
the structure of one-member sentences does not provide availability of subjective syntaxem (two-member sentences
requiring such presence), analytical predicative syntaxemes with the value of voice changes in one-member sentences
more focused on the expression of external conditions and its characterized by the possibility of transfer as the process
of acquiring a certain status, and the result of this process. This is facilitated by the ability of the predicative (words of
the Voice) to express an agentless condition. Instead, the analytical predicative syntaxemes in two-member sentences
are used mainly to show the characteristics as a result of voice changes process. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Further studies provide the clarification of the structure and semantics of other types of analytical
predicative syntaxemes.

Research highlights
► In this article the analytical predicative syntaxemes which denote the change of state in two-member and one-
member sentences of the Ukrainian language are investigated. ► Author defines the structure and semantics of such
syntaxemes. ► She determines the dependence of structure and semantics of the analytical predicative syntaxemes on
the sentence type.
Keywords: analytism, synthetism, syntaxeme, analytical predicative syntaxeme, state, sentence, two-member
sentence, one-member sentence.

Vykhovanets’, I. R. (1993). Hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy. Syntaksys. K.: Lybid’.
Dubova, O. A. (2001). Syntetyzm ta analityzm: ponyattya i terminy. Visnyk Kyyivs’koho linhvistychnoho
universytetu. Seriya: Filolohiya, 4 (1), 99-110.
Dubova, O. A. (2006). Diakhronichna typolohiya ukrayins’koyi movy. K.: Milenium.
Zahnitko, A., & Zahnitko, N. (2007). Zakonomirnosti spoluchuvanosti pryymennykiv zi znachennyam mety.
Donets’kyy visnyk Naukovoho tovarystva im.. Shevchenka. Mova, 16, 38-61. Donets’k, 2007.
Zolotova, G. A. (1988). Sintaksicheskij slovar’: Repertuar jelementarnyh edinic russkogo sintaksisa. M.: Nauka.
Kavera, N. V. (2008). Semantychna typolohiya predykativ stanu. Avtoref. dys… kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01.
Kosenko, K. O. (2010). Predykatna osnova ta semantyko-hramatychna dyferentsiatsiya diyeslivnykh zv‟yazok v
ukrayins’kiy mov. Avtoref. dys… kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Kyyiv.
Kutnya, H. (2004). Dvomisni semantyko-syntaksychni struktury z predykatamy protsesu v suchasniy
ukrayins’kiy movi. Visnyk L’vivs’koho universytetu. Seriya: Filolohiya, 34 (1), 125-133.
Mirchenko, M. V. (2002). Syntaksychni katehoriyi rechennya. Avtoref. dys… d-ra filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Kyyiv.
Muhin, A. M. (2001). Morfologicheskie i sintaksicheskie kategorii. Issledovanija po jazykoznaniju: K 70-letiju
chlena-korrespondenta RAN A.V. Bondarko, 51-55. SPb.
Pasichnyk, I. A. (1998). Semantyko-syntaksychna valentnist’ predykatyvnykh prykmetnykiv. Avtoref. dys…
kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Kyyiv.
Serdyukova, T. I. (2002). Lokatyvni ta temporal’ni syntaksemy v ukrayins’kykh skhidnoslobozhans’kykh
hovirkakh. Dys… kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Kyyiv.
Smurova, L. I. (1995). Variantnost’ final’nyh (celevyh) sintaksem (na materiale anglijskogo jazyka). Avtoref.
dis… kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. SPb.

Sources and Abbreviations
Andrukhovych, Yu. I. (2007). Tayemnytsya. Zamist’ romanu. Kharkiv: Folio.
Boyko, O. D. (2001). Istoriya Ukrayiny. K.: Vydavnychyy tsentr “Akademiya”.
Duma, V. V. (2009). Orhanizatsiyne (operatyvno-vykonavche, pravo vykonavche) pravozastosuvannya. Pravo i
suspil’stvo, 1, 36-40.
Zahrebel’nyy, P. A. (2001). Roksolana. Kharkiv: Folio.
Kondratyuk, S. V. (2009). Ukrayins’ka Natsional’na Rada – Vyshchyy predstavnyts’kyy orhan ZUNR. Pravo i
suspil’stvo, 1, 30-36.

Correspondence: victoria_sopachova@yahoo.com
Victoria V. Sopachova, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Ukrainian Philology and General Linguistics,
Lecturer at Department of English Philology in Black Sea State University Petro Mohyla. Her research areas include the
grammar of the modern Ukrainian language, in particular syntax.

Irina Svyatobachenko
Department of General Linguistics and Russian language, Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign
Languages, Horlivka, Donetsk region, Ukraine

Available 17 November 2011

Today anthropocentric scientific paradigm dominates in linguistic, it causes that the election of the person and
his activities are leading measure of research in all branches of linguistics. The theory of actual sentence division isn‟t
exception: sentence appears not as basic unit of the syntactic level of language, and only as unit, designed for
information exchange between people, by processing of this concept. The situational conditions and assignments of
information exchange determine the regularities of building, the realization of these or those intentions in it.
Active manifestation of the issue of actual sentence division became in the works of Prague school linguists
J. Vachek, F. Daneš, V. Mathesius, J. Firbas etc. The problem of actual sentence division at different times had been
studied by V. Beloshapkova, A. Zahnitko, V. Ivshin, I. Kovtunova, K. Krushelnitska, O. Lapteva, N. Leshkova,
O. Melnichuk, N. Merkulova, O. Aleksandrova, V. Orehov, A. Pumpyanskiy, I. Raspopov, O. Seliverstova,
L. Chernyahovska, V. Shevyakova and others. The works about functional sentence perspective by J. Firbas are no less
The problem of actual division asyndetic composite sentence is still relevant. Yes, to this day the binary issue of
actual division of the asyndetic complex sentence is unresolved, and how the communication components of the
asyndetic complex sentence combine and the manner in which they perform complete communicative tasks too.
The purpose of the article is to determine characterological features of actual division of the asyndetic complex
sentences with the parts of an equal status.
To achieve the purpose of the study author has solved the following tasks: 1) to explore determining features of
actual sentence division theory and its connection with the studying of the sentences structure; 2) to determine
characterological features of actual division of the asyndetic complex sentences as a special kind of polypredicative
units which components have the same communicational task; 3) to trace the regularities of actual division of the
asyndetic complex sentence with equal components.
The object of the research is the asyndetic complex sentence with equal parts, in particular its functioning in
speech as a communicative unit.
The subject of the research is the actual division of the asyndetic complex sentences with equal parts.
Practical value
The practical value of the work is that the materials of research can be used while teaching a general course of
the Ukrainian language, syntax, grammar and current issues of linguistics.
The asyndetic complex sentence, as well as the simplest communicative unit, is characterized by its actual binary
division (theme/rheme), but communicative structure of asyndetic complex sentence also has a number of
characteristics that differentiates it from other communication units: having more than one proposal that appears in
functioning of more than one predicate units within a sentence; the resulting phenomenon of simultaneous functioning
of the number of communication structures which based on the theme and rheme distribution of the information, and
parts of asyndetic complex sentence form a communicative unit, characterized by its own communicative division that
also leads to the actual division of the asyndetic complex sentence, and the absence of formal indicator of connection
between the components for the maximum condensation of information.
The problem of the mechanism of theme/rheme categories interaction of different levels of actual division of the
asyndetic complex sentences, the means of their connection and identification regularities, the characterological features
of actual division of the asyndetic complex sentences, which parts are unequal, when one part leads to another, are the
perspective for further research in complex sentence syntax and the theory of functional grammar.

Research highlights
► It is researched the theory of the actual division of the sentence, the patterns of distinction the
communicative categories which reflect the mechanism of the dividing the sentence onto the theme and rheme in
accordance with the communicative weight of each of the components. ► In the article with the help of the example
of asyndetic complex sentences with the parts of an equal status (the Ukrainian, Russian and English languages) it is
considered the typological features of the communicative structure of the asyndetic sentence with the parts of an
equal status.
Keywords: actual division of the sentence, theme, rheme, asyndetic complex sentence, the semi-leveled actual
division of the sentence.

Vykhovanets’, I. R. (1993). Hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy. Syntaksys. Kyyiv: Lybid’. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Zahnitko, A. P. (2011). Teoretychna hramatyka suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi movy. Morfolohiya. Syntaksys.
Donets’k: TOV “VKF “BAO”.
Zahnitko, A. P. (2001). Teoretychna hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy: Syntaksys. Donets’k: DonNU.
Krylova, O. A. (2009). Kommunikativnyj sintaksis russkogo jazyka. Moskva: Knizhnyj dom “LIBROKOM”.
Kruchinina, I. N. (1980). Bessojuznye soedinenija predlozhenij. Russkaja gramatika (2 t.), T. 2: Sintaksis.
Moskva: Nauka
Firbas, J. (1992). Functional Sentence Perspective in Written and Spoken Communication. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Hajičovа, Eva. (1998). Topic-Focus Articulation, Tripartite Structure, and Semantic Content. Kluwer Academic
Mathesius, V. (1975). A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis. Prague:

Correspondence: Svyata87@mail.ru
Irina S. Svyatobachenko is a Post-Graduate Student at Department of General Linguistics and Russian language
in Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages, Horlivka, Donetsk region, Ukraine (speciality 10.02.15 –
General Linguistics), a laboratory assistant at Cabinet of the Ukrainian Language and Literature at Faculty of Slavic and
Germanic Languages in Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages. Her research area includes
functional-communicative grammar.

Larysa Sydelnykova
Department of Romance Philology, Kyiv National Linguistic University, Kyiv, Ukraine

Available 22 November 2011

In the history of French language a newly French period is considered as the epoch of the final forming of
national unity through joining of new provinces, transformation of royalty into a legislature and ending of process of
written-literary language norms establishing. That‟s why XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries were characterized by fixing of basic
foundations of modern writing, particularly by standardizing existing at that time norms of writing standards.
Researches of evolutional development of the phonetic and graphic system features always were in a spotlight of
many home and foreign linguists, because they reveal specific of becoming of the graphic system of French writing,
show the basic mechanisms of forming of grapheme which reproduced sounds of speech.
However, consideration of this problem from position of complex approach taking into account not only
phonetic overloading of definite graphic unites of newly French language, but also grammar, semantic and functional
peculiarities still is not completely researched and this predetermines actuality of given work.
The aim of the article is to make an analysis of XVIIth-XVIIIth French phonetic system, to determine the
phonographic inventory for writing vowels and consonants, to find out functional overload of newly French graphic
complexes (GK), and to reveal basic principles of French writing.
Object of research is phonetic and graphic system of French language XVIIth-XVIIIth cc.
Subject of research is phonetic and graphic peculiarities and phonographic inventory of newly French.
Thus it is observed more global penetrating into graphics of morphological, etymological and logographical
writings. This has promoted further rooting of differential and morphological principles of French writing.
According to made research, dominant principle in newly French writing was historical or traditional one –
35 %, morphological principle was on the second place – 25%, etymological was the third – 24%, phonetic one was the
fourth – 10%, and differential was the fifth – 9% of general amount of grapheme.
Author considers as perspective further complex study of peculiarities of phonographic and ideographic
development of literal signs for writing vowel and consonant phonemes in French language of the XIXth century.


Research highlights
► The phonographic and ideographic peculiarities in Newly French have been studied. ► The main graphic
resources for transfer the vowel and consonant phonemes have been identified. ► The functional capacities of the
different graphemes in Newly French writing have been analyzed. ► The revelation of base writing principles in Newly
French has been set.
Keywords: phonographic inventory, phonogram, morphogram, ideogram, logogram, grapheme, graphic
complex, Newly French.

Doza, A. (2003). Istorija francuzskogo jazyka. Moskva: Izd-vo inostr. lit.
Katagoshhina, N. A. (1968). Istoricheskie predposylki razvitija francuzskogo pis’menno-literaturnogo jazika,
215-225. Moskva: Nauka.
Sergievskij, M. V. (1938). Istorija francuzskogo jazyka. Moskva: Uchpedgiz.
Skrelina, L. M., & Stanovaja, L. A. (2001). Istorija francuzskogo jazyka. Moskva: Vysshaja shkola.
Bettens, О. (2008). Chantez-vous franзais? Remarques curieuses sur le franзais chantй du Moyen Age а la
pйriode baroque. Suisse: Virga. E-portal: http://virga.org/cvf/de_a_a_y.php
Chaurand, J. (2006). Histoire de la langue franзaise. P.: Presses universitaires de France.
Cohen, M. (1958). Notes de mйthode pour l‘histoire du franзais. P.: Edition en langues йtrangиres.
Pierret, J.-M. (1994). Phonйtique historique du franзais et Notions de phonйtique gйnйrale. Sйrie pйdagogique de
l‟Institut de linguistique de Louvain, 19.
Picoche, J., & Marchello-Nizia, Ch. (1998). Histoire de la langue franзaise. P.: Universitй NATHAN.
Zink, G. (1986). Phonйtique historique du franзais. P.: Presses Universitaires de France.

Correspondence: kovzus@ukr.net
Larisa V. Sydelnykova, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor working for a doctoral degree at
Department of Romance Philology in Kyiv National Linguistic University. Her research area includes the comparative
and historical linguistics.

Ganna Sytar
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 10 November 2011

Structural, semantic and pragmatic organization of sentences with phraseological structures (syntactic idioms)
differs significantly from traditional (non idioms) models and requires a theoretical interpretation that motivates
relevance of the chosen research topic.
The purpose of the research is to identify syntactic, semantic properties of syntactic idioms built after a model
Який N1 Copf in the Ukrainian language.
Achieving the supplied goal involves the solution of the following tasks: 1) to reveal the factors which form the
semantics of sentences built after a model Який N1 Copf; 2) to distinguish semantic nuances expressed by these
syntactic idioms; 3) to reveal the features of the lexical content of the obligatory models components; 4) to identify the
realization variants of the structural scheme of these sentences; 5) to trace the paradigmatic potential of the analyzed
model of syntactic idioms.
So sentences with phraseological structures built after a model Який N1 Copf are the striking example of
the asymmetric syntactic units. These sentences have constant and variable parts and are characterized by weakening of
the categorical meaning of the constant component that motivates the formation of the phraseological model. One of the
features of this type sentences is the ability to change word order.
Analyzed sentences with phraseological structures have six variants of the extended structural scheme
The main evaluative meaning (more positive, at least – negative) and 4 additional shades (surprise, compassion /
regret, denial, parametric meaning) are characteristic for the syntactic idioms of the considered model. Features of the ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

semantics of this type sentences are caused by such factors as lexical meaning of the variable component and / or
spreaders, the nearest context and intonation.
Prospects for further research are seen in the identifying of the basic pragmatic parameters of syntactic idioms of
the considered model and in the tracing of the semantic and paradigmatic properties in
particular synonymic connections with other models of sentences with phraseological structures.

Research highlights
► In the paper the factors that gave reasons for semantics and structures of syntactic idioms constructed by
model «Який N1 Copf» are determined. ► Shades of meaning that are realized from those sentences are assigned.
► The variations of their structural scheme is set. ► The features of noun lexical content required component model is
Keywords: model of sentence, sentence paradigm, syntactic idiom, sentence structural scheme, sentence with
phraseological structure, Ukrainian language.

Velichko, A. V. (1996). Sintaksicheskaja frazeologija dlja russkih i inostrancev. Moskva: Izd-vo MGU.
Velichko, A. V. (2004). Frazeologizirovannye struktury russkogo predlozhenija. Kniga o grammatike: Russkij
jazyk kak inostrannyj, 37-54. Moskva.
Vsevolodova, M. V. (2000). Teorija funkcional’no-kommunikativnogo sintaksisa. Fragment prikladnoj
(pedagogicheskoj) modeli jazyka. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo un-ta.
Vsevolodova, M. V. & Lim Su, Jon. (2002). Principy lingvisticheskogo opisanija sintaksicheskih
frazeologizmov: Na materiale sintaksicheskih frazeologizmov so znacheniem ocenki. Moskva: MAKS Press.
Kosmeda, T. A. (2000). Aksiolohichni aspekty prahmalinhvistyky: formuvannya i rozvytok katehoriyi otsinky.
L’viv: LNU im. I. Franka.
Lychuk, Mariya. (1999). Frazeolohizovani rechennya v systemi syntaksychnykh odynyts’. Linhvistychni studiyi,
5, 163-165. Donets’k: DonDU.
Lychuk, M. I. (2001). Stupeni frazeolohizatsiyi rechen’. Avtoref. dys… kand. filol. Nauk: 10.02.01. Kyyiv.
Lychuk, M. I. & Shynkaruk, V. D. (2001). Stupeni frazeolohizatsiyi rechen’. Chernivtsi: Ruta.
Melikjan, V. Ju. (2004). Sovremennyj russkij jazyk. Sintaksis nechlenimogo predlozhenija. Rostov-na-Donu: Izd-
vo RGPU.
Melikjan, A. V. (2007). Sistemnyj i funkcional’nyj aspekty interpretacii frazeosintaksicheskih shem s opornym
komponentom-voprositel’nym slovom (na materiale ispanskogo jazyka). Avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.19
“Teorija jazyka”. Rostov-na-Donu.
Mykhal’chenko, M. M. (2010). Vnutrishn’otekstova hradatsiya otsinky: komunikatyvno-prahmatychni funktsiyi.
Dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01 “Ukrayins’ka mova”. Donets’k.
Nagaeva, E. V. (2010). Frazeoshemy s voprositel’nym slovom v anglijskom jazyke: frazeologicheskij i sistemno-
funkcional’nyj aspekty. Avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.19 “Teorija jazyka”. Rostov-na-Donu.
Pankova, V. V. (2007). Frazeosintaksicheskie shemy s opornym komponentom-mestoimeniem: jazyk i rech’: na
materiale russkogo jazyka. Avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.19 “Teorija jazyka”. Rostov-na-Donu.
Russkaja grammatika (1980). Russkaja grammatika. Vol. 2. Sintaksis. Moskva: Nauka.
Sytar, H. V. (2011). Strukturni i semantychni typy syntaksychnykh frazeolohizmiv v ukrayins’kiy movi.
Movoznavchyy visnyk, 12-13, 178-181. Cherkasy.
Hohlina, M. L. (2006). Sintaksicheskaja idiomatika russkogo jazyka v lingvopragmaticheskom aspekte: na
materiale ustojchivyh modelej prostogo predlozhenija. Avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01 “Russkij jazyk”.
Shvedova, N. Ju. (1958). O nekotoryh tipah frazeologizirovannyh konstrukcij v stroe russkoj razgovornoj rechi.
Voprosy jazykoznanija, 2, 93-100.

Correspondence: mova@interdon.net
Ganna V. Sytar, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor working for a doctoral degree at Department of
Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics in Donetsk National University. Her research areas include Ukrainian
grammar, in particular syntactic idioms and phraseological structures.

Olha Sytenko
Department of Grammar and Speech Practice, Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages,
Horlivka, Donetsk region, Ukraine ABSTRACTS


Available 25 November 2011

Relevance of the research consists not only in the necessity of the comparative investigation of one of the
fundamental language categories on the materials of the languages with different structure, English and Ukrainian, but
also in the essential need of the firm studying of translated ways of number forms of English and Ukrainian nouns; in
the article the common and differential features of number noun lexemes forming are analyzed and correct translated
ways of such grammatical forms and constructions are proposed. Solution of the declared problem is founded because
the translation of the grammatical number forms represents exactly the lacuna which is almost unsolved in the language
till now.
The purpose of the work is to investigate nouns in their quantitative measurements which are researched on the
materials of the languages with different structure, particularly English and Ukrainian.
The subject of the study is nouns in their quantitative measurements which are researched on the materials of the
languages with different structure, English and Ukrainian.
The main tasks of the study are: 1) to analyze and systemize the terminological device of general-theoretic
consideration of the grammatical number and to find out its status in the system of grammatical categories; 2) to analyze
particular qualities of paradigmatic structure of the number in English and Ukrainian languages; 3) to find out
morphological noun ways of the number expression on the material of investigated languages; 4) to follow the
production of the word-formative means of the noun numeral forms formation; 5) to determine common and differential
features in the structure area; 6) to describe the translated ways of such grammatical forms and constructions.
Thus, in the most of cases for the correct translation reproduction of the noun number forms an interpreter should
consider the contextual indicators of the noun number form‟s significances. As such determinatives are verb predicate
forms, the numeral (one or more then one), the indicatory pronouns (this/these, that/those), presence, class and
functional fill of the article (а/the) or the meaning of whole sentence.
In perspective there are extremely necessary further researches in course of comparative investigation of genetic
not kindred English and Ukrainian languages and an analysis of translated ways of different grammatical categories,
forms and constructions on these languages foundation.

Research highlights
► In this article the forms of the number of English and Ukrainian nouns are under consideration, isomorphic
and allomorphic structural and denotative peculiarities of the above mentioned grammatical phenomenon are analyzed.
► The attention is focused on marking out the difficulties of the translation of the forms of the number of English and
Ukrainian nouns, correct ways of the translation of such forms and constructions are suggested.
Keywords: singular, plural, the quantity of the objects, collective meaning, lexical meaning, contextual
indicator, equivalent.

Bezpoyasko, O. K., & Horodens’ka, K. H., & Rusanivs’kyy, V. M. (1993). Hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy.
Morfolohiya. Kyyiv: Lybid’.
Vejhman, G. A. (1990). Novoe v anglijskoj grammatike. Moskva: Vysshaja shkola.
Zahnitko, A. P. (1996). Teoretychna hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy. Morfolohiya. Donets’k: Vyd-vo
Donets’koho derzhavnoho universytetu.
Karaban, V. I. (2004). Pereklad anhliys’koyi naukovoyi i tekhnichnoyi literatury. Hramatychni trudnoshchi,
leksychni, terminolohichni ta zhanrovo-stylistychni problemy. Vinnytsya: Nova knyha.
Korunets’, I. V. (2004). Porivnyal’na typolohiya anhliys’koyi ta ukrayins’koyi mov. Vinnytsya: Nova knyha.
Leonova, M. V. (1983). Suchasna ukrayins’ka literaturna mova. Morfolohiya. Kyyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. (1997). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Olha O. Sytenko, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Grammar and Speech Practice in
of Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages. Her research areas include comparative grammar
particularly the translated ways from English to Ukrainian and conversely. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25


Olena Taukchi
Department of English Philology, Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages, Horlivka, Donetsk
region, Ukraine

Available 29 November 2011

The problem of lexical compatibility is multilateral and multiaspects. According to cumulative linguistic
experience, the ways of its solution can be found on the intersection of lexicology, syntax and semasiology. The
actuality of the theme is that description of basic nature of lexical compatibility helps to understand the inner system of
the language, the specific character of its functioning.
The purpose of the research is attempted to explain the motivation of broad diapason of compatible words in not
closely cognate languages.
The realization of purpose provides the solution of such tasks: 1) a theoretical examination of lexical
compatibility as the linguistic phenomenon; 2) a retrospective analysis of different views on the problem of
compatibility of the language units in the native and foreign linguistics; 3) a description of the factors which determine
the structure of combined word-combination by means of the investigated languages.
In the history of the native and foreign linguistics the combinatorial analysis of the words considered as
compatible link between lexicology and syntax (M.V. Lomonosov, D.M. Sokolov, P.I. Sokolov, O.H. Vostokov,
O.O. Potebnya, O.O. Shahmatov, G. Suit, J.R. Fyors, F.R. Palmer etc.). In this connection the ability of the words to
enter the syntactical constructions expected the explanations according to the linguistic rules and regularities.
In further researches it is planning the retrospective analysis of conceptions of lexical compatibility in works of
American linguists.

Research highlights
► Lexical combinability problem that has always stirred researchers` intense interest in our time takes on new
significance. ► There is no doubt that the phenomenon of lexical combinability should be clearly defined. ► This issue
largely determined the choice of the theme for our article.
Keywords: lexical compatibility, syntax, word-combination, semantic category, lexical meaning.

Vinogradov, V. V. (1958). Iz istorii izuchenija russkogo sintaksisa (ot Lomonosova do Potebni i Fortunatova).
Moskva: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta.
Zarajskij, A. A. (2000). Semanticheskij aspekt leksicheskoj sochetaemosti v anglijskom jazyke. Edinicy jazyka i
ih funkcionirovanie: Mezhvuzovskij sbornik nauchnyh trudov, 6, 104-111. Saratov.
Peshkovskij, A. M. (2001). Russkij sintaksis v nauchnom osveshhenii. Moskva: Jeditorial URSS.
Potebnja, A. A. (1941). Iz zapisok po russkoj grammatike.Ob izmenenii znachenija i zamenah sushhestvitel’nogo
(3 t.). Moskva: Prosveshhenie.
Fortunatov, F. F. (1956). Izbrannye trudy (1 t.). Moskva: Uchpedgiz.
Shahmatov, A. A. (2001). Sintaksis russkogo jazyka. Moskva: URSS.
Firth, J. R. (1956). Modes of Meaning. Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951, 174-202. London: Oxford University
Firth, J. R. (1957).The Technique of Semantics. Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951, 5-38. London: Oxford
University Press.
Sweet, H. (1913). Words, logic and grammar. TP3 1875-6. Reprinted in Collected papers. Oxford: Clarendon

Correspondence: alenta_777@mail.ru
Olena F. Taukchi, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor, Head of Department of English philology of
Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages. Her research area includes the functional grammar.


Tatyana Telichko
Department of World Literature and Classical Philology, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 15 November 2011

The problem of intertextuality is the actual problem of modern philology. As a rule this problem is considered in
connection with aesthetics of post-modernist novel. The more general approach to problem allows picking out textual
interaction as feature of the every text. The article presents an analysis of intertextuality of Walpole‟s “Russian” novels
“The Dark Forest” (1916) and “The Secret City” (1919). The novels are considered practically as diology about Russia
which were integrated by history of Russian, general figure of narrator (the writer Devord) and transitive personage
(Semenov). In the first novel the action occurs in Galicia during the retreat of Russian army in 1915. The narrator
relates about tragedy which happens within triangle: Jon Trenchad –Mariya – Semenov. The events of second novel are
connected with the February (for European – March) Revolution in 1917 in the Petrograd when the narrator provided to
is witness of drama in Markovich‟s family. The image of Semenov was connected with destructive beginning in both
novels which was leading to tragic finale.
The purpose this research is analysis of perception of Russian reality by the Englishman.
So, image of Semenov was marked by signs of English literary tradition as central Russian character in the
Walpole‟s novels with absolute connection with Dostoyevsky‟s poetics. This is compensating a complication in some
ways with which apparently the author deals with them using of Dostoyevsky‟s language which approximated his to
understanding of Russia regardless.
Thus, Russian literature, and first of all, Dostoyevsky become original communicative code that was providing
dialogue between England and Russia for Walpole who was just doing stake on unity in spiritual sphere.
The research of intertextuality in the English novel the turn of the XXth century is to consider „textual interaction‟
in the context of Russian and English literary links.

Research highlights
► The intertextual relations of Walpole‟s “Russian” novels “The Dark Forest” and “The Secret City” to
Dostoyevsky‟s poetics were analyzed. ► As a part of the analysis, it was determined that “textual interaction” within
Walpole‟s novels implies establishing a concept of dialogue between England and Russia. ► Dostoyevsky‟s “word”,
which the English author uses to depict the plot, is simultaneously to be regarded as the “language” of this dialogue,
complementary communicational code, which ensures this dialogue.
Keywords: intertextuality, dialogue, “Dostoyevsky‟s character”, “dreamer”, “underground man”.

Gachev, G. (2004). Russkij Jeros (“roman” Mysli s Zhizn’ju). Moskva: Izd-vo Jeksmo, Izd-vo Algoritm.
Dzhouns, M. V. (1998). Dostoevskij posle Bahtina. Issledovanija fantasticheskogo realizma Dostoevskogo.
Sankt-Peterburg: “Akademicheskij proekt”.
Dostoevskij, F. M. (1989). Prestuplenie i nakazanie (v 15 t.), 5. Leningrad: Nauka.
Nasedkin, N. N. (2003). Dostoevskij. Enciklopedija. Moskva: “Algoritm”.
Toporov, V. N. (1995). Mif. Ritual. Simvol. Obraz: issledovanija v oblasti mifopojeticheskogo: Izbrannoe.
Moskva: “Progress”-“Kul’tura”.
Shestakov, V. P. (1999). Jeros i kul’tura: Filosofija ljubvi i evropejskoe. Moskva.
Walpole, H. (1916). The Dark Forest. Lnd.
Walpole, H. (1997). The Secret City. Sutton Publishing.

Correspondence: nomen-omen@ukr.net
Tatyana G. Telichko, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of World Literature and Classic
Philology in Donetsk National University. Her research areas include linguistics of text, discoursology, world literature
and classic philology.


Olena Tschorna
Department of Translation and General Linguistics, Kirovohrad Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University,
Kirovograd, Ukraine

Availablе 23 November 2011

Anthropocentric orientation of modern linguistic studies, the growth of scientific interest in the human factor in
language and the change of the scientific paradigm of communication research as a real opposition to the actions of
the latter study as a multidimensional process that is characterized with planning, strateging and intentionality, move the
study of political communication and its constituents in the center of linguistic research. Domestic and
foreign linguists considered the question of the communicative space in political discourse (PD) (G. Pocheptsov,
J. Sternin), methods of analysis of PD (O. Sheyhal, O. Issers), its manipulative specificity (G. Lakoff, A. Myhalova),
mechanisms of image formation of politics in communication (L. Rouzel, J. Sternin, T. Romanova). However, despite
the considerable interest of scientists to specified issues, remains understudied of the image-creative potential
communication strategies as a mechanism for the formation of stable image of the senior public entity, including the
President. This determines the relevance of the study.
The purpose of the research is the characteristics of communication strategies of the President speech by
analyzing samples of political discourse.
The main tasks of the study are: 1) distinguishing and classifying the communication strategies of political
speech of the the highest state official, 2) description of image-creation potential of these funds.
The object of the paper is the communicative image of a politician.
The subject of the work is the communicative strategies as a means of image.
Sources of factual material
Sources of factual material served as the 35 speeches of President of Ukraine (Leonid Kuchma (second term),
V. Yushchenko, V. Yanukovych), the Russian Federation (V. Putin (first and second terms), D. Medvedev), the United
States of America (George Bush Jr. (first and second terms), Barack Obama), which were delivered during 2000-
2011 on the occasion of important national holidays: Independence Day of Ukraine, the U.S. Independence Day, the
Day of Russia and Day of National Unity. The factual material taken from the official sites of Presidents of Ukraine
(www.president.gov.ua), Russian Federation (http://kremlin.ru) and the United States of America
(http://www.whitehouse.gov), as well as electronic fund of Vernadsry National Library of Ukraine
Thus, communication strategies that form a communicative image of the President of modern times, describe
him as a caring family man, humanist, patriot, family man, humanist, patriot, one of the lads, attentive companion,
competent organizer, decisive and responsible leader. In addition, the commented review of communicative strategies
helps decode the true intentions of policy.
The perspective of further research is the analysis of communication strategies of political speech of the
President in times of crisis.

Research highlights
► The paper suggests the original classification of communicative strategies. ► The typical communicative
strategies, which form the image of a president, are characterized. ► Author defines their types and kinds. ► The work
describes the means of verbalizing the abovementioned elements.
Keywords: image, communicative strategy, types and kinds of communicative strategies, consciousness

Zigmann, Zh. V. (2003). Struktura sovremennogo politicheskogo diskursa: rechevye zhanry i rechevye strategii.
Dis. … kand.filol. nauk: 10.02.01. M.
Issers, O. S. (2011). Kommunikativnye strategii i taktiki russkoj rechi. M.: Flinta; Nauka.
Mihaleva, O. L. (2009). Politicheskij diskurs: Specifika manipuljativnogo vozdejstvija. M.: Knizhnyj dom

Sternin, I. A. (2001). Vvedenie v rechevoe vozdejstvie. Voronezh.
Shejgal, E. I. (2000). Semiotika politicheskogo diskursa. Dis. … dok. filol. nauk: 10.02.20. Volgograd.
Black, S. (1993). The essentials of public relations. London.
Coleman, S. (2010). The media and the Public: ―Them‖ and ―Us‖ in Media Discourse. Chishester: A John
Wiley & Sons.
Dijk, T. A. van (1983). Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. New York: Academic Press, Inc.

Correspondence: olena_tschorna@yahoo.com
Olena O. Tschorna, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Translation and General Linguistics in Kirovohrad
Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University. Field of interest is the discourse, in particular the political discourse.

Oksana Usova
Department of Ukrainian Studies, Donetsk State University of Management, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 14 November 2011

Research of antropoetonims functioning in the language of artistac text (hereafter AT) is a very large and
complex subject and it is one of the issues in poetonimology. Deeper and more understanding of the text is impossible
without poetonims analysis, the study which is part of the research work of the writer, it features of the idiostyle. Many
of the authors created their own names (the VI) are converted to a sort of battery contents, acquire great art and
generalizing power.
One of the most vivid figures of Ukrainian literature, not only 20s, but also the entire twentieth century –
Valerian Pidmogyl‟nyi – was returned to the Ukrainian literature in the early 90s. His heritage actively investigated by
Ukrainian writers and literary critics from the diaspora (Zabuzhko O., Kovalchuk O., Miller V, Movchan, R., S.
Pavlychko, Sherekh Yu, Shevchuk V., etc.). [Zabuzhko 2001; Miller 1999; Movchan 2000; Pavlychko 2003; Shevchuk
2003; Sherekh 2003]. All these intelligence have exclusively literary orientation.
Actuality of work is determined to the fact that that the language of writers works, and especially the structure
and composition antropoetonims – the core of poetonimsphere AT – has not been the object of poetonimology studies
The purpose of the article is the analysis of structure and functions of antropoetonims in Valerian Pidmogyl′nyi`s
small prose of small prose.
The material for the article were antropoetonims from novels and short stories «Gajdamaki», «Vanja»,
«Povstancі», «Komunіst», «Іvan Bosij», «Іstorіja panі Їvgi», «Sin», which were written during 1918-1923. Nominating
system of these works has 66 antropoetonims.
Therefore, analyzing stories and novels by Valerian Pidmogyl′nyi the author can say that the writer uses proper
names according to its design, creative method to the specific ideological and artistic tasks in a given work. On the use
of the name is a stamp era, a literary movement, reflected the influence of world view, the writer.
The main source of antroponimic system in the works is a real noun of Ukrainian village, and the writer actively
using it. Typical for the rural environment name transfer coloring of live Ukrainian folk language and basically perform
the function of nominative naming the person as well as the characteristic that indicates the author’s attitude and
treatment of other character actors, gives a description of adverse character.
Analysis of fiction poetonimosphere is the next step towards a deeper understanding of the creative writer. This
article is devoted to studying the core of poetonimosphere – antroponims, but the general idea of the features of
onomastic writing by V. Pidmohylny is not enough. Beyond the attention remained toponims and other poetonims,
originality of their structure, function, clarification depending poetonim form on the genre of the work – that author
devotes the next exploration.

Research highlights
► Article explores one of the actual problems of poetonimology, in particular operation of antropoetonims in art
text (based on short stories and novels of V. Pidmogyl′nyi). ► The structure of the antropoetonims in short stories and ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

novels have been reviewed and discussed. ► Their functions have been defined. ► The identity of onomastic author`s
writing has been determined.
Keywords: andronim, antropoetonim, onimless nomination, derivative, patronim, poetonim, poetonimology.

Beley, L. O. (2002). Nova ukrayins’ka literaturno-khudozhnya antroponimiya: problema teoriyi ta istoriyi.
Boyko, Yu. (2003). “Nevelychka drama” V. Pidmohyl’noho na tli diysnosti 20-kh rokiv. Dosvid kokhannya i
krytyka chystoho rozumu: Valer‘yan Pidmohyl’nyy: teksty ta konflikt interpretatsiy, 313-331. Kyyiv: Fakt.
Zabuzhko, O. (2001). Filosofiya i kul’turna prytomnist’ natsiyi. Khroniky vid Fortinbrasa, 136-148. Kyyiv: Fakt.
Kalinkin, V. M. (2001). Pojetikaonima.Doneck.
Karpenko, M. V. (1978). Onomastika v hudozhestvennoj literature. Onomastika: Problemy i metody: Sbornik
obzorov, 169-188. Moskva.
Karpenko, Ju. A. (1986). Specifika imeni sobstvennogo v hudozhestvennoj literature. Onomastica, 31, 5-22.
Koval’chuk, O. (1997). “Ideolohizovane tilo yak faktor buttya”. Slovo i chas, 7-8, 198-200.
Krupen’ova, T. I. (2001). Onomastyka dramatychnykh tvoriv Lesi Ukrayinky: Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk:
10.02.01. ONU. Odesa.
Kuharenko, V. A. (1984). Imja zaglavnogo personazha v celom hudozhestvennom tekste. Russkaja onomastika,
109-118. Odessa.
Mihajlov, M. (2008). Antologija pojetonimologicheskoj mysli. Doneck: Jugo-Vostok.
Movchan, R. (2000). Proza V. Pidmohyl’noho. Dolya. Lyudyna. Styl’. Dyvoslovo, 1, 15-24.
Otin, E. S. (2006). Slovar’ konnotativnyh sobstvennyh imen. Moskva, OOO “A Temp”.
Pavlychko, S. (2003). Intelektual’na proza Petrova y Pidmohyl’noho. Dosvid kokhannya i krytyka chystoho
rozumu: Valer‘yan Pidmohyl’nyy: teksty ta konflikt interpretatsiy, 367-383. Kyyiv: Fakt.
Podol’skaja, N. V. (1988). Slovar’ russkoj onomasticheskoj terminologii. Moskva: Nauka.
Superanskaja, A. V. (1973). Obshhaja teorija imeni sobstvennogo. Moskva: Nauka.
Shevchuk, V. (2003). Ekzystentsial’na proza Valer‟yana Pidmohyl’noho. Dosvid kokhannya i krytyka chystoho
rozumu: Valer‘yan Pidmohyl’nyy: teksty ta konflikt interpretatsiy, 353-367. Kyyiv: Fakt.
Sherekh, Yu. (2003). Bilok i yoho zaburennya. Dosvid kokhannya i krytyka chystoho rozumu: Valer‘yan
Pidmohyl’nyy: teksty ta konflikt interpretatsiy, 331-341. Kyyiv: Fakt.
Shotova-Nikolayenko, H. V. (2006). Onimnyy prostir romaniv Yu. I. Yanovs’koho. Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol.
nauk: 10.02.01. ODU, Odesa.

Pidmohyl’nyy, V. (1989). Misto: Roman, opovidannya. Kyyiv: Molod’.
Pidmohyl’nyy, V. P. (1991). Misto: roman ta opovidannya. Kyyiv: Veselka.
Pidmohyl’nyy, V. (2003). Lysty z Solovkiv Dosvid kokhannya i krytyka chystoho rozumu. Valer‘yan
Pidmohyl’nyy: teksty ta konflikt interpretatsiy. Kyyiv: Fakt.

Correspondence: usova.64@mail.ru
Oksana O. Usova, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Ukrainian Studies in Donetsk
State University of Management. Her research area includes the onomastics.

Irina Vinokurova
Department of English Philology, Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of Foreign Languages, Horlivka, Donetsk
region, Ukraine

Available 24 November 2011

The culture of reading is vital professional problem of philologist-teacher. Philologist has to understand not only
subject-logical information contained in the text, but also emotional, aesthetic and intellectual aspects of the text. А
complete perception of a work of literature requires from the reader some preparation, including prior knowledge about
the place of the work in linguistic and literary process and in the general cultural development of the country in whose
language it was written. ABSTRACTS

It should be noted that the “Lord of the Rings” by J.R.R. Tolkien was in the middle of the twentieth century
against the backdrop of the revolutionary development of science and technology, the introduction of computer
technologies and occurrences of them in the daily life primarily in the form of computer games. Computer industry of
leisure and entertainment has led to some changes in mass consciousness and set it on the perception of virtual reality.
In the mentioned socio-cultural environment “Lord of the Rings” had a phenomenal success, entering into the top five
bestsellers of the twentieth century.
No wonder, that the work attracted the attention of philologists, who offered the analysis of the ideological and
artistic content, of the system of images, mythical motifs in “Lord of the Rings” and noted the secondary world of
J.R.R. Tolkien (S. Alekseev, A. Tikhomirov, S. Koshelev, D. Pavkin, R. Kabakov, V. Hook, V. Kuritsyn, Y. Krotov,
M. Kamenkovych, S. Likhachev). However, the multifaceted nature of the virtual world of J.R.R. Tolkien is not
covered. The relevance of the research is a comprehensive study of the virtual world of J.R.R. Tolkien as a literary
phenomenon of our time.
The purpose of the proposed article is to study the linguistic and stylistic means by which the effect of fidelity is
attained [Mozheiko2003: 172].
The purpose involves solving such tasks: 1) the consideration of stylistic means on the phonetic language level
and in graphic aspect, which reflects the intonation and sound features of speech, 2) the study of stylistic means on the
morphology level, and 3) the promote of education of creative reader.
Thus, in the “Lord of the Rings” author sees the introduction of old diphthongs, alphabetic principle
pronunciation of proper names, facts of missing Indo-European speech. The phonetic features are reflected by specific
graphics means, especially by letters of artificial languages that were invented by J.R.R. Tolkien. Obsolete verbal forms
which tend to the period of Common-Germanic development of the languages and literatures, impressive by synthetic
laconism and analytical vast. Obsolete forms are used to reproduce the color of past or grand style. This practice covers
phonetic, grammatical and semantic features of speech of certain characters, and all work, producing the effect of the
historical probability.
In the future, it would be reasonable to consider the use by J.R.R. Tolkien obsolete words on the lexical level of
the language, to have a better idea of linguistic mechanism for creating a secondary world of Professor.

Research highlights
►The use of phonetic, graphic and grammatical stylistic means in the trilogy «The Lord of the Rings» by
J.R.R. Tolkien is viewed upon. ►Their contribution to the formation of secondary reality is commented on. ►Their
main functions are determined. ►The achieved psychological and aesthetical effect is pointed at.
Keywords: stylization, archaization, archetype, possible worlds, fidelity, diacritic, stylistic tinge.

Zhluktenko, Yu. O., & Yavors’ka,T. A. (1986). Vstup do hermans’koho movoznavstva. Kyyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
Karpenter, H. (2002). D.R.R. Tolkien. Biografija. Moskva: “EKSMO-Press”.
LES, (1990). Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar’. Moskva: Sov. Enciklopedija
LE, (2007). Literaturoznavcha entsyklopediya (u 2-h tomah), 1. Kyyiv: VC “Akademiya”.
Mozhejko, M. A. (2003). Virtual’naja real’nost’. Novejshij filosofskij slovar’, 171-173. Minsk: Kn. Dom.
Nikolaeva, A. N. (2002). O volshebnoj istorii. Nauka i zhizn’, 5, 78-84.
Rastorgueva, T. A. (1983). Istorija anglijskogo jazyka. Moskva: Vysshaja shkola.
Rudnev, V. P. (2003). Jenciklopedicheskij slovar’ kul’tury XX veka: Kljuchevye ponjatija i teksty. Moskva:
SAYa, (1991). Stilistika anglijskogo jazyka. Kyyiv: Vyshcha shkola.

Tolkien, J. R. R. (2008). The Return of the King (being the third part of The Lord of the Rings). London: Harper
Collins Publishers.

Correspondence: vinokurova_irina@ukr.net
Irina F. Vinokurova, Senior Lecturer at Department of English Philology in Horlivka State Pedagogic Institute of
Foreign Languages. Her research area includes English stylistics, and the theory of discourse.


Inna Yushkovets
Department of Germanic Philology, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 14 November 2011

The necessity of research caused by inherent modern linguistics centered holistic approach to communication in
general and political communication in particular, the lack of comprehensive analysis of cooperative speech activity
Chancellors of Germany, which is recorded in their statements of governmental and political speeches. From this point
of view the linguistic identity of the German Chancellors of particular concern as a significant factor influencing the
formation and development of political language – a particular subsystem of the modern German language.
The purpose of the research is identifying and describing the communicative strategies and tactics in the political
discourse of Chancellors of Germany, and establishing and analyzing the lexical, syntactic and stylistic means of
expression of these strategies and tactics.
Sources of factual material
Sources of factual material served as the 488 texts of political speeches and 324 government statements by
Chancellors of Germany in a post-war period (total over 5000 pages), obtained from 8 collections of political
appearances and speeches and 8 collections of government applications, published by the press service of the federal
government organ – by newspaper «Das Parlament» and on the relevant web-pages in the Internet. There were analyzed
32 video (total of 320 minutes) of the available in the archives and open access videos museum of German history
(Bonn, Germany).
Expressive speech tactics implemented certain set of tropes, allowing Chancellors to manage so impressed that
they make on the audience, positioning itself emotional, ironic, humorous, able to induce sympathy.
Perspective is the study of communication strategies and tactics of the political discourse of political leaders on
nationwide and regional levels in countries with different forms of government.

Research highlights
► The paper studies the speech expressivity tactic, which lets the politician express emotions and allows his
self-expression. ► Depending on circumstances and emotional condition experienced, there can be rational and
emotional evaluations. ► The specific feature of this tactic is its realization on the level of stylistic and syntactic means.
Keywords: political discourse, communicative tactic, language personality, speech expressivity, stylistic means,
syntactic means.

Bazhenova, I. S. (2003). Emocii, pragmatika, tekst. Moskva: Menedzher.
Beregovskaja, Je. M. (2004). Ocherki po jekspressivnomu sintaksisu. Moskva: Rohos.
Bessonova, L. E. (2004). Kommunikativnye aspekty politicheskogo diskursa. Uchenye zapiski TNU im.
V.I. Vernadskogo. Filologicheskie nauki, 16 (55), 1, 22-27.
Vodak, R. (1997). Jazyk. Diskurs. Politika. Volgograd: Peremena.
Zheltuhina, M. R. (2000). Komicheskoe v politicheskom diskurse konca XX veka. Russkie i nemeckie politiki.
In-t jazykoznanija RAN. Volgograd.
Issers, O. S. (1999). Chto govorjat politiki, chtoby nravit’sja svoemu narodu. Vestnik Omskogo universiteta, 1,
Kamenskaja, O. L. (1997). Jemocional’nyj uroven’ jazykovoj lichnosti. Aktual’nye problemy teorii referencii: sb.
nauch. tr., 435, 9-19. Moskva: Izd-vo MGLU.
Karaulov, Ju. N. (1996). Tipy kommunikativnogo povedenija nositelja jazyka v situacii lingvisticheskogo
jeksperimenta. Jetnokul’turnaja specifika jazykovogo soznanija. Moskva, 67-96.
Luk, A. N. (1982). Jemocii i lichnost’. Moskva: Znanie.
Maslova, V. A. (1991). Parametry jekspressivnosti teksta. Chelovecheskij faktor v jazyke. Jazykovye momenty
jekspressivnosti. Moskva: Nauka, 179-204.
Becker-Mrotzek, М. (2004). Analyse und Gesprдchskompetenz. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.
Brown, G. (1983). Discourse Аnalysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grьnert, H. (1983). Politisches Sprechen als oppositiver Diskurs: Analyse theoretisch-argumentativer Strukturen
im parlamentarischen Sprachgebrauch. Tьbingen: Narr, 73-79.
Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge, 4-40. ABSTRACTS

Habermass, J. (1971). Vorbereitende Bemerkungen zu einer Theorie der kommunikativen Kompetenz. Theorie der
Gesellschaft oder Sizialtechnologie. Frankfurt / M.: Suhrkampf, 101-141.
Holly, W. (1990). Politikersprache. Inszenierungen und Rollenkonflikte im informellen Sprachhandeln eines
Bundestagsabgeordneten. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

Adenauer, K. (1975). Reden 1917 – 1967. Eine Auswahl. Hg. H.-P. Schwarz.
Bundeskamzler, (1971). W. Brandt. Reden und Intervievs. Hamburg: Verlag Hoffmann und Campe.
Bundeskanzler, (1989). H. Kohl. Reden zur Sozial Marktwirtschaft. Obrigheim.
Die Deutsche Einheit, (1992). Reden und Gesprдche. Lьbbe: Bergisch Gladbach.
Die Formierte Gesellschaft, (1966). Ludwig Erhards Gedanken zur politischen Ordnung Deutschlands. Reden
und Interviews des Bundeskanzlers und bemerkungswerte Stellungnahmen. Hrsg. Presse- und Informationsamt der
Stьve, К. (2001). Die groЯen Regierunngserklдrungen der deutschen Bundeskanzler von Adenauer bis Schrцder.
VS Verlag.
Stьve, K. (2005). Die Rede des Kanzlers. VS Verlag.

Correspondence: i.jushkovets@mail.ru
Inna A. Yushkovets, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Germanic Philology in
Donetsk National University. Field of interest is the discourse, in particular the political discourse of Germany.

Anatoliy Zahnitko
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 17 November 2011

Last years (at the end of XXth c. – beg. of XXIth c.) are present comprehension of questions about grammatical
number of nouns in the light of functional, pragmatic, communicative, functional-cognitive, synergetic and other
approaches with use of proper methods and techniques. Such conceptual explanations of either grammatical
(morphological, syntactical, word-formative) forms with display of it functional-semantic paradigms and inside
differentiation of morphological, morphosyntagmatical, semantic, diversion, textual are arise as important, because they
are make impossible the investigation of grammatical appearance in the it system ↔ usage ↔ individual-occasional
exhibitions. The consideration of evolutional tendency in the system of morphological forms, significances, categories
is considerable. The use of functional-cognitive methods for parsing of morphological number is meaningful. All of it is
witness the actuality of morphological categorical number of nouns research in it wider range exhibition with following
of main and peripheral sphere of semantics number implementation.
The purpose of the work is the ascertainment of typological-functional and typological-theoretic range of
morphological nouns number forms with exhibition of it second functions capacity and stock.
The declared purpose is cause of necessity of proper tasks determination: 1) to reveal peculiarities of theoretic-
typological approaches for interpretation of morphological nouns number forms; 2) to characterize the functional
correlation / non-correlation of morphological nouns number forms; 3) to establish the function ability of morphological
nouns number forms; 4) to determine the correlation / non-correlation of morphological and semantic number; 5) to
qualify section spheres of morphological nouns number forms and lexical plurality such as багато / мало, більше /
Thus, MC of number in inside is quite saturated by intercrossing and conjunctive-disjunctive interdependence of
singular and plural forms function, by laying on function one to another with different range of use, at the same time the
expansion of functional satiation plural forms is arise as exactly tracked, consequently line of singular function
(secondary) is arise as display in the plurals on the absolute periphery of it function-semantic paradigms. Semantic
output of number MC is arise as conditional, because it is include only main plane, and mainly be expressed irregular
quantity in the sphere of lexical quantifier (in the another time *четверина, *п’ятерина will be like display of special
regular number forms), but only situation quality is qualify with substantial shade of subjectivity.

The investigation of morphologic marked number differentiation not only by the quantity marker (три, чотири,
etc.), but and by the lexical quantifier, what gradually acquire of the usage character and appear as competitive for the
forms of plural / singular is promising.

Research highlights
► The basic / non-basic functions of substantive number forms have been set. ► The patterns of expansion of
the functional range of plurals have been characterized, due to the identificative peculiarities of these forms and some
one-stage implementation with such types of tendency of ideation → mentalization → identification. ► A wider range
of plurals through they absorb the prepositive forms of dual, trial number and their functions has been revealed.
Keywords: morphological category, singular, plural, ideation, mentalization, identification.

Altytseva, L. Yu. (2003). Funktsional’no-semantychni parametry imennykiv z nepovnoyu chyslovoyu
paradyhmoyu. Avtoref. … kand. filol. nauk. Kyyiv: Natsional’nyy pedahohichnyy universytet imeni M.P. Drahomanova.
Vykhovanets’, I., & Horodens’ka, K. Teoretychna morfolohiya ukrayins’koyi movy. Akadem. hramatyka ukr.
movy. Kyyiv: Universytets’ke vydavnytstvo “Pul’sary”.
Etymolohichnyy, (1982-1985). Etymolohichnyy slovnyk ukrayins’koyi movy (1-2). Kyyiv: Naukova dumka.
Zahnitko, A. (2011). Teoretychna hramatyka ukrayins’koyi movy. Donets’k: VKF “BAO”.
Kolesov, V. V. (2011). Ideacija i russkaja mental’nost’. Znak – svidomist’ – znannja, 1, 7-13.
Ljashevskaja, O. N. (2004). Semantika russkogo chisla. Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury.
Ljashkevich, A. I. (1985). Imennye sochetanija so znachenim kolichestva. Mn.: Vyshjejshaja shkola.
Percov, N. V. (2001). Invarianty v russkom slovoizmenenii. Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury.
Peshkovskij, A. M. (1956). Russkij sintaksis v nauchnom osveshhenii. Izd. 7-e. Moskva: Uchpedgiz.
Pete, I. (1981). Semanticheskie tipy kolichestvennyh otnoshenij. Die Welt der Slaven, XXVI, 2, 338-345.
Pivovarova, S. V. (2009). Leksikalizacija form mnozhestvennogo chisla imen sushhestvitel’nyh v sovremennom
russkom jazyke: v aspekte analiza ih konceptnyh znachenij. Dis. … kand. filol.. nauk. Bijsk.
Plungjan, V. A. (2003). Obshhaja morfologija. Vvedenie v problematiku. Moskva: Editorial URSS. (Novyj
lingvisticheskij uchebnik).
Plungjan, V. A. (1995). Semanticheskie tipy predmetnyh imen: grammatika, leksika i kognitivnaja interpretacija.
Dialog ‘95: Trudy mezhdunarodnogo seminara po komp’juternoj lingvistike i ee prilozhenijam. Kazan’: Izd-vo Kazan.
Potebnja, A. A. (1888). Znachenija mnozhestvennogo chisla v russkom jazyke. Voronezh.
Rahilina, E. V. (2009). Semantika leksicheskoj mnozhestvennosti v russkom jazyke. Voprosy jazykoznanija, 4,
Revzin, I. I. (1969). Tak nazyvaemoe “nemarkirovannoe mnozhestvennoe chislo” v sovremennom russkom
jazyke. Voprosy jazykoznanija, 3, 102-109.
Tihonov, M. Ju. (1971). Leksiko-frazeologicheskaja mikrosistema „mnogo‟ v sovremennom russkom jazyke.
Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. Samarkand.
Gawelko, M. (1985). Semantyczne aspekty pluralizacji w języku franzuskim i polskim. Język i obce w szkole,
29, 195-200.

Correspondence: a.zagnitko@gmail.com
Anatoliy P. Zahnitko, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied
Linguistics in Donetsk National University. His areas of research interests include functional linguistics, cognitive
linguistics, comparative linguistics, categorical linguistics, lexicographic linguistics, and text linguistics.

Anatoliy Zahnitko
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 21 November 2011

In modern linguistics it‟s difficult to overemphasize the status of sociolinguistics, which has developed
significantly over the XXth and the beginning of the XXIth century, its significance in studies of language and society, ABSTRACTS

and directions of establishment of their relations. The latter, undoubtedly, is caused by extra overload of language
during shaping and structuring of the society ([Orlov 1969b; Popok, Laghutov 1998]), creation of conventional social
groups (by age, level of education, territory, profession, etc.) and successive existence of these relatively stable social
groups. All studies like that, and their active deepening have caused the necessity of creation and institutionalization of
a new research system (see [Zagnitko 2008: 139-155]), use of integrated methods and techniques of social, community
and linguistic research to review and study typical situations of linguistic communication (developed especially actively
during periods of modification of maps of state-territorial entities) that will allow elaboration of a particular type of
grammar – situational.
The purpose of the analysis is to establish differential, qualifying and classifying features of the language
situation and sociolinguistic portrait, to characterize typological manifestations of the language situation in modern
The purpose raises the following tasks: 1) to establish differential, qualifying and classifying features of the
language situation and sociolinguistic portrait with outlining their stableness, 2) to determine correspondence/non-
correspondence of the concepts of ‘language situation’ and ‘sociolinguistic portrait’, 3) to identify the main types of
language situations and to provide review on their existence in modern Ukraine.
The novelty of research is grounded on the fact that for the first time the correlation of concepts of ‘language
situation’ and ‘sociolinguistic portrait’ has been disclosed, and theoretical background has been determined by
deepening of the concept of ‘language situation’ and ‘sociolinguistic portrait’ and by disclosure of their differential,
qualifying and classifying features.
Practical value
The practical value, proposed by the analysis, is determined by the possibility of applying its results into deep
research of the language situation in different regions of Ukraine, using the method of sociolinguistic portrait and
achievements in graduate practice within the course of sociolinguistics.
Defining the type of linguistic situation with its qualifying, differential, and classifying parameters relies on the
method of sociolinguistic portraying [Koryakov 2002: 84-118], which allows to detect the most essential temporal,
spatial, event and personal parameters of specific linguistic personality, social/corporate, territorial group, overall state
territory. Sociolinguistic portraying with the appropriate methods of application gives a holistic sociolinguistic portrait;
the total number of such sociolinguistic portraits enables establishment of a language situation and its type. The method
of sociolinguistic portrait is effective because the set of techniques, methods and technologies of gender, education, age,
status, role, situational loaded/situational neutral and others involved in it, enables the establishment of a degree of
saturation of a territory or a corporate group with the appropriate language/linguistic stereotypes, preferences, and
determination of the characteristics and patterns of language dominance, etc.
There is a perspective of processing the language situation in the country with defining the chronological levels
of sociolinguistic portraits, setting the active/passive correlation of different languages in some chronological, event-
situational space and defining the “load” of the ideologems in the corresponding period of functional language loading.

Research highlights
► The main differential features of the concept of „language situation‟ and the notion of „sociolinguistic
portrait‟ are analyzed. ► The ratio of these notions is exposed. ► Their status in the sociolinguistic system is
determined. ► Author characterized typological manifestations of the language situation in Ukraine and gave directions
for its universalization. ► He set specificity variation of the language situation in Ukraine in reliance on the established
division of the northern, south-western and south-eastern dialects.
Keywords: language situation, sociolinguistic portrait, idiom, doublespeak, mezolekt, bazilekt.

Zahnitko, A., & Kudreyko, I. (2008). Sotsiolinhvistyka: predmetno-ponyattyevyy aparat. Donets’kyy visnyk
Naukovoho tovarystva imeni Shevchenka, 22, 139-155. Donets’k: Ukrayins’kyy kul’turolohichnyy tsentr, Skhidnyy
vydavnychyy dim.
Korjakov, Ju. B. (2002). Jazykovaja situacija v Belorussii i tipologija jazykovyh situacij. Dis. … kand. filol.
nauk: spec. 10.02.19 “Obshhee jazykoznanie, sociolingvistika, psiholingvistika”. Moskva.
Krysin, L. P. (1992). O perspektivah sociolingvisticheskih issledovanij v rusistike. Rusistika, 2, 96-106.
Mechkovskaja, N. B. (1994). Jazykovaja situacija v Bellarusi: Jeticheskie kollizii dvujazychija. Russian
Lingustics, 18, 309-321.
Movna sytuatsiya, (2008). Movna sytuatsiya v Ukrayini: mizh konfliktom i konsensusom. Kyyiv: IPiEND imeni
I.F. Kurasa NAN Ukrayiny. ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Nikolaeva, T. M. (1991). “Sociolingvisticheskij portret” i metody ego opisanija. Russkij jazyk i sovremennost’.
Problemy i perspektivy razvitija rusistiki, 2. Moskva: Nauka.
Orlov, L. M. (1969). O social’noj i stilisticheskoj differenciacii territorial’nyh govorov. Uchenye zapiski
Volgogradskogo pedagogicheskogo instituta, 2, 120-135. Volgograd.
Orlov, L. M. (1969). Social’naja i funkcional’no-stilisticheskaja differenciacija v sovremennyh russkih
territorial’nyh govorah. Dis. d-ra … filol. nauk, 101-115. Volgograd.
Popok, A., & Lahutov, Yu. (1998). Natsional’no-kul’turni potreby rosiyan v Ukrayini ta ukrayintsiv v Rosiyi.
Rozbudova derzhavy, 9/10, 6-11.
Proekty, (2001). Proekty zakonov o jazykah – jekspertnyj analiz. K.

Correspondence: a.zagnitko@gmail.com
Anatoliy P. Zahnitko, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied
Linguistics in Donetsk National University. His areas of research interests include functional linguistics, cognitive
linguistics, comparative linguistics, categorical linguistics, lexicographic linguistics, and text linguistics.

Anastasiya Zenina
Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Ukraine

Available 23 November 2011

Language as the functional system of units feeds and enriches mainly from interior resources. However on the
some stage of its historical development so called «strange» elements of the dictionary ceased to be latent and their role
increased. Embranchment of the terminological set for description of language novelties lets to assert that notions
neologism and innovation function on the same level with the concept loanword as a result of language contacts. That is
why the investigation of the process of their mutual influence and their concerning is becoming more and more
Loanwords in the context of dynamic development of the lexical and semantic systems of the language were
investigated by such explorers as N.S. Valgina, Y. A. Zatsnyi, Y.A. Karpilovska, O.A. Styshovyi and others.
In this article the purpose is to find out the nature of the loanword in its correlation with the concept of
neologism and innovation, so long as the lack of their exact differentiation is marked.
The obtaining of this purpose expects solution of such tasks as: 1) to differentiate the main approaches to the
classification of loanwords; 2) to analyze existing definitions of concepts of neologism and innovation; 3) to distinguish
the models of their content intersection.
The loanword in correlation with the notion neologism and innovation is the subject of the investigation.
Loanword as a process and the result of language contacts arises as one of the ways of enrichment and renewal
of all the levels of the language system. Traditionally such nomination is the kind in compartment with much deeper
concept of innovation (neologism), that contains new names, created both by the own generative language means, and
by the means of the other languages‟ funds (the model of correlation: innovation / neologism → loanword, or neologism
(innovation) → lexical neologism / loanword). According to another point of view neologisms on the same level with
loanwords are supposed to be the functional kinds of the innovations: innovation → neologism / loanword.
The ascertaining of the criterions of the loanwords classification, that will provide the possibility of their
actualisation in the language is thought to be perspective in further investigations.

Research highlights
► The article dwells upon the devotion of the nature of the linguistic borrowing in the context of the lexical and
semantic system dynamics. ► The models of the correlation of the notion borrowing, neologism and innovation were
Keywords: borrowing, dynamics of language, innovation, language contacts, neologism.

Anglijskie neologizmy, (1983). Anglijskie neologizmy. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Andrusyak, I. V. (2003). Anhliys’ki neolohizmy k. XX st. yak skladova movnoyi kartyny svitu. Avtoref. dys. …
kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Kyyiv.
Bragina, A. A. (1973). Neologizmy v russkom jazyke: posobie dlja studentov i uchitelej. Moskva: Prosveshhenie.
Byeloz’orov, M. V. (2003). Anhliys’ki leksychni ta frazeolohichni novotvory u sferi ekonomiky: strukturnyy,
semantychnyy i sotsiofunktsional’nyy aspekty. Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Kyyiv.
Blumfild, L. (2010). Jazyk. Moskva: Progress. (Lingvisticheskoe nasledie ХХ veka).
Britikova, K. V. (2007). Uzual’ne ta okazional’ne v innovatsiyakh suchasnoyi ukrayins’koyi movy: tendentsiyi
onovlennya leksyko-slovotvirnoyi katehoriyi nazv osoby. Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.04. Kharkiv.
Vajnrajh, U. (1979). Jazykovye kontakty. Sostojanie i problemy reshenija. Kyyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
Vlijanie (1988). Vlijanie social’nyh faktorov na funkcionirovanie i razvitie jazyka. Moskva: Nauka.
Volkov, S. S., & Sen’ko, E. V. (1983). Neologizmy i vnutrennie stimuly jazykovogo razvitija. Novye slova i
slovari novih slov, 43-58. L.: Nauka.
Gak, V. G. (1978). O sovremennoj francuzskoj neologii. Novye slova i slovari novih slov, 37-53. L.: Nauka.
Karpilovs’ka, Ye. A. (2007). Funktsional’nyy potentsial ta pidtrymka movnykh innovatsiy. Linhvistychni studiyi,
15, 402-406. Donets’k: DonNU.
Klymenko, N. F. (2008). Dynamichni protsesy v suchasnomu ukrayins’komu leksykoni. Kyyiv: Vydavnychyy
Dim Dmytra Buraho.
Krysin, L. P. (2004). Russkoe slovo, svojo i chuzhoe: Issledovanija po sovremennomu russkomu jazyku i
sociolingvistike. Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury. (Studia philological).
Novi slova, (2008). Novi slova ta znachennya: slovnyk. Kyyiv: Dovira.
Serhyeyeva, H. A. (2002). Anhlomovni zapozychennya v ukrayins’kiy pravnychiy terminolohiyi. Avtoref. dys. …
kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01. Kharkiv.
Stratulat, N. V. (2009). Deryvatsiyni ta semantychni neolohizmy v leksychniy systemi ukrayins’koyi movy (na
materiali tlumachnoho slovnyka ukrayins’koyi movy v 20-ty tomakh). Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. nauk: 10.02.01.
Turovs’ka, L. (2005). Innovatsiyni protsesy v ukrayins’kiy naukoviy terminolohiyi. Ukrayins’ka mova, 2, 56-63.
Haugen, Je. (1972). Process zaimstvovanija. Novoe v lingvistike. Jazykovye kontakty, VI, 344-382. Moskva:
Shcherba, D. V. (2004). Zasoby zapozychennya ta asymilyatsiyi anhlomovnykh komp‟yuternykh terminiv.
Visnyk Zhytomyr. derzh. un-tu, 17, 260-262.
Fischer, R. Studying Anglicisms. E-portal:www.c-s-p.org/Flyers/9781847186560-sanyle.pdf.
Klein, W. Lexicology and Lexicography. E-portal: www.mpi.nl/word/materials/publications/Klein/147-2001.pdf.
Nunnemann, E. M. Borrowing in the English Language. E-portal: www.eva.nunnemann.com.pdf.
Sim, M. A. English Borrowing – Means of Re-latinisation of Romanian Language. E-portal:
Sullivan, S. M. A Mechanism of Lexical Borrowing. E-portal: cgi.server.uni-franfurt.de.
Tatsioka, Z. Code-switching and English Loanwords in the Greek Media. E-portal:
Weber, M. Semantic Aspects of Linguistic Borrowings from the English Language in the Polish Sociolect of
Information Technology. E-portal: www.ceeol.com›aspx/getdocument.aspx.
Weber, M. Semantic Aspects of Linguistic Borrowings from the English Language in the Polish Sociolect of
Information Technology. E-portal: www.ceeol.com›aspx/getdocument.aspx.

Correspondence: anvz@mail.ru.
Anastasiya V. Zenina, Post-Graduate Student at Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics in
Donetsk National University. A circle of scientific interests is lexicology, in particular language contacts.

Olga Zhvava
Department of Education and Science of Mykolayiv Regional State Administration, Mykolayiv, Ukraine

Available 22 November 2011

Relevance ЛІНГВІСТИЧНІ СТУДІЇ. Випуск 25

Learning a living national language – dialects – is an important problem in contemporary Ukrainian linguistics.
Main attention deserves special vocabulary that reflects the various changes in live broadcasting media subdialects. So
far, the Podillya`s ceremonial vocabulary are not been studied in detail in Ukrainian linguistics, only single working by
ethnographers highlight some extent different rites, without taking into account the intefrity of vital practices as
necessary (K. Sheykovskyi, F. Rybskyy, N. Duchynskyy, S. Dolinsky, etc.). This is due to the relevance of the study.
A collection of linguistic material from ethnolinguistics is complicated and painstaking work. Therefore, the
purpose of the proposed article is to consider issues that arise during the collection of linguistic material, for example
vocabulary of family ceremonies of Podillya.
The object of the work is to establish the etymology of ethnolinguistics effects of spiritual culture [Tolstoy 1983:
183-189; Gritsenko 2000: 164]. It is clear that such a plan is necessary to study the geographical distribution of certain
cultural phenomena, actions, and how these effects vary in space.
Achieving this goal involves the following tasks: 1) to find out the specifics of establishing psychological
contact the exploratory with the informant, 2) to define the problem of setting a model of ceremony – the basis for
program-questionnaire, and 3) to determinate the value of transcription texts for the study of linguistic features of
family ceremonies of Podillya.
Thus, the study of ritual terminology allows for the evolution of culture and history of any area. The difficulty
lies not only in building a ritual text, the definition of important attitudes, but also in how to distinguish between plain
text and the system in which living, without which there is a particular individual, a society.
Author sees the prospects for further scientific studies in drawing programs based on questionnaire-invariant
descriptions of family ceremonies that will enable the future establishment of a comprehensive ethnolinguistic portrait
of Podillya.

Research highlights
► The article is devoted to the problems of collection of linguistic material for family ceremonies of Podillya.
► Basic difficulties, which touch not only actual collection of linguistic material but also establishment of model of
family ceremonies by means the specially developed program, are described. ► In the article the complication of
ceremonial text which illustrates the character of thought of man is marked, and development of culture of ethnos.
Keywords: ethnolinguistics, dialect, jargon, ceremony, ceremonial vocabulary.

AUM, (1984-2001). Atlas ukrayins’koyi movy (v 3 t.). Kyyiv.
ESUM, (1982-2007). Etymolohichnyy slovnyk ukrayins’koyi movy (u 7 t.), T. 1-5. K.: Naukova dumka (Seriya
“Slovnyky Ukrayiny”).
Hrytsenko, P. Yu. (1996). Teksty yak dzherelo doslidzhennya chornobyl’s’kykh hovirok. Hovirky
Chornobyl’s’koyi zony. Kyyiv.
Hrytsenko, P. Yu. (2000). Etnolinhvistyka. Ukrayins’ka mova. Entsyklopediya, 178-179. Kyyiv.
Koval’chuk, O. V. (1994). Ukrayins’ke narodoznavstvo. Kyyiv.
Konobrods’ka, V. (2003). Kursova i dyplomna roboty z etnolinhvistyky, 33-34. Zhytomyr.
Tolstoj, N. I. (1983). O predmete jetnolingvistiki i jejo roli v izuchenii jazyka i jetnosa. Areal’nye issledovanija v
jazykoznanii i jetnografii.Jazyk i etnos, 181-190. Leningrad: Nauka.
Tolstoj, N. I. (1999). Neravnomernost’ razvitija zven’ev jazykovoj i mifologicheskoj sistemy v
etnolingvisticheskom aspekte. Ocherki po slavjanskomu jazykoznaniju, 3, 40-41. Moskva.

Correspondence: kleopa@mksat.net
Olga A. Zhvava, Head of Coordinative Sector of Higher School, Science and Technology of Education
(Department of Education and Science of Mykolayiv Regional State Administration, Mykolayiv, Ukraine). Her research
area includes the ethnolinguistics and the dialectology.

Літературне місто - Онлайн-бібліотека української літератури. Освітній онлайн-ресурс.